Accounting Analysis I: The Role of Accounting as an Information System

Start Date: 09/15/2019

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/accounting-information-system

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Course Syllabus

We will learn the nuances of the Balance Sheet as well as various forms of disclosures associated with financial statements, including the Auditors' Report and MD&A. We will also review several key liquidity and financing ratios. Lastly, we will learn what's included in the operating segment reporting and wrap up with a fun exercise on understanding your own personal Balance Sheet!

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Course Introduction

This course is the first course in a five-course Financial Reporting Specialization that covers the

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Accounting Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, external auditing, and tax accounting. Accounting information systems are designed to support accounting functions and related activities. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to external users of the information, such as investors, regulators and suppliers; and management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information for internal use by management. The recording of financial transactions, so that summaries of the financials may be presented in financial reports, is known as bookkeeping, of which double-entry bookkeeping is the most common system.
Accounting information system An accounting information system (AIS) is a system of collecting, storing and processing financial and accounting data that are used by decision makers. An accounting information system is generally a computer-based method for tracking accounting activity in conjunction with information technology resources. The resulting financial reports can be used internally by management or externally by other interested parties including investors, creditors and tax authorities. Accounting information systems are designed to support all accounting functions and activities including auditing, financial accounting & reporting, managerial/ management accounting and tax. The most widely adopted accounting information systems are auditing and financial reporting modules.
Accounting An accounting information system is a part of an organisation's information system that focuses on processing accounting data.
Accounting information system The steps to implement an accounting information system are as follows:
Accounting Management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information that can help managers in making decisions to fulfil the goals of an organization. In management accounting, internal measures and reports are based on cost-benefit analysis, and are not required to follow the generally accepted accounting principle (GAAP). In 2014 CIMA created the Global Management Accounting Principles (GMAPs). The result of research from across 20 countries in five continents, the principles aim to guide best practice in the discipline.
Accounting information system Early accounting information systems were designed for payroll functions in 1970s. Initially, accounting information systems were predominantly developed "in-house" as legacy systems. Such solutions were expensive to develop and difficult to maintain. Therefore, many accounting practitioners preferred the manual approach rather than computer-based. Today, accounting information systems are more commonly sold as prebuilt software packages from large vendors such as Microsoft, Sage Group, SAP AG|SAP and Oracle Corporation|Oracle where it is configured and customized to match the organization’s business processes. Small businesses often use accounting lower costs software packages such as MYOB and Quickbooks. Large organisations would often choose ERP systems. As the need for connectivity and consolidation between other business systems increased, accounting information systems were merged with larger, more centralized systems known as enterprise resource planning (ERP). Before, with separate applications to manage different business functions, organizations had to develop complex interfaces for the systems to communicate with each other. In ERP, a system such as accounting information system is built as a module integrated into a suite of applications that can include manufacturing, supply chain, human resources. These modules are integrated together and are able to access the same data and execute complex business processes. Today, Cloud-based accounting information systems are increasingly popular for both SMEs and large organisations for lower costs. With adoption of accounting information systems, many businesses have removed low skills, transactional and operational accounting roles.
Accounting Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.
Accounting information system Traditionally, accounting is purely based on manual approach. Experience and skilfulness of an individual accountant are critical in accounting processes. Even using the manual approach can be ineffective and inefficient. Accounting information systems resolve many of above issues. AISs can support an automation of processing large amount of data and produce timely and accuracy of information.
Accounting Accounting information systems have reduced the cost of accumulating, storing, and reporting managerial accounting information and have made it possible to produce a more detailed account of all data that is entered into any given system.
Accounting Accounting research is research in the effects of economic events on the process of accounting, and the effects of reported information on economic events. It encompasses a broad range of research areas including financial accounting, management accounting, auditing and taxation.
Index of accounting articles Accounting ethics - Accounting information system - Accounting research - Assets
Accounting Accounting has several subfields or subject areas, including financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, taxation and accounting information systems.
Accounting information system Many large and SMEs are now adopting cost effective cloud-based accounting information system in recent years.
Accounting Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information to external users of the information, such as investors, potencial investors and creditors. It calculates and records business transactions and prepares financial statements for the external users in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). GAAP, in turn, arises from the wide agreement between accounting theory and practice, and change over time to meet the needs of decision-makers.
Accounting Accounting has variously been defined as the keeping or preparation of the financial records of an entity, the analysis, verification and reporting of such records and "the principles and procedures of accounting"; it also refers to the job of being an accountant.
Accounting information system Many AIS professionals work for consulting firms, large corporations, insurance companies, financial firms, government agencies and public accounting firms, among other types of companies. With technological advancement, traditional accounting practice will shift to accounting information systems practice. Both accounting and information technology professional bodies are working on the new directions of accounting programs and industry practices. System Auditors is one of the top choices in the past two decades, they look at the controls, data processing, data integrity, general operation, maintenance, security and other aspects of all types of information systems used by businesses. A lot of the companies will deal with software and finding a software that is right for the company, or maintaining a software for a company.
Accounting, Organizations and Society "Accounting, Organizations and Society" focuses on the relationship between accounting and both human behaviour and organizations' structures, processes, social, and political environments. Specific topics covered include the social role of accounting and social accounting; processes influencing innovations in accounting; organizational strategies for designing accounting and information systems; the behaviour of users of accounting information; and cognitive studies of accounting and decision-making.
Fund accounting The label, "fund accounting", has also been applied to investment accounting, portfolio accounting or securities accounting – all synonyms describing the process of accounting for a portfolio of investments such as securities, commodities and/or real estate held in an investment fund such as a mutual fund or hedge fund. Investment accounting, however, is a different system, unrelated to government and nonprofit fund accounting.
Social accounting Social accounting is often used as an umbrella term to describe a broad field of research and practice. The use of more narrow terms to express a specific interest is thus not uncommon. Environmental accounting may e.g. specifically refer to the research or practice of accounting for an organisation's impact on the natural environment. Sustainability accounting is often used to express the measuring and the quantitative analysis of social and economic sustainability. National accounting is a narrower usage in concentrating on the nation as the aggregable unit of analysis and economics as a method of analysis.
Accounting irregularity An accounting irregularity is an accounting term for practise that does not conform to the normal laws, practises and rules of the accounting profession, having the deliberate intent to deceive or defraud. Accounting irregularities can consist of intentionally misstating amounts and other information in financial statements, or omitting information required to be disclosed. Accounting irregularities are commonly distinguished from unintentional mistakes or errors.