After the Arab Spring – Democratic Aspirations and State Failure

Start Date: 09/15/2019

Course Type: Common Course

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Course Syllabus

In this section, you will become acquainted with some of the mistakes that were made in the decades prior to the outbreak of the recent Arab rebellions. These shortcomings have led to stunted and underperforming political systems, much at variance with developments elsewhere.

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Course Introduction

Learn why the hope and excitement of the Arab Spring is gone, why so many Arab states are falling ap

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Arab Spring On 26 October 2014, the country held its first parliamentary elections since the 2011 Arab Spring and its presidentials on 23 November 2014, finishing its transition to a democratic state. These elections were characterized by the fall in popularity of Ennahdha, for the secular Nidaa Tounes party, which became the first party of the country.
Arab Spring One of the primary influences that have been highlighted in the analysis of the Arab Spring is the relative strength or weakness of a society's formal and informal institutions prior to the revolts. When the Arab Spring began, Tunisia had an established infrastructure and a lower level of petty corruption than did other states, such as Libya. This meant that, following the overthrow of the existing regime, there was less work to be done in reforming Tunisian institutions than elsewhere, and consequently it was less difficult to transition to and consolidate a democratic system of government.
Arab Spring In the wake of the Arab Spring protests, a considerable amount of attention has been focused on the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens within areas affected by 'the Arab Uprisings' as a means for collective activism to circumvent state-operated media channels. The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Spring has, however, been much debated. Protests took place both in states with a very high level of Internet usage (such as Bahrain with 88% of its population online in 2011) and in states with one of the lowest Internet penetration (Yemen and Libya).
Arab Spring The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", and the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War it was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization. The first specific use of the term "Arab Spring" as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal "Foreign Policy". Marc Lynch, referring to his article in "Foreign Policy", writes "Arab Spring—a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article". Joseph Massad on "Al Jazeera" said the term was "part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement's] aims and goals" and directing it towards western-style liberal democracy. Due to the electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be known as "Islamist Spring" or "Islamist Winter".
Arab Spring The world watched the events of the Arab Spring unfold, "gripped by the narrative of a young generation peacefully rising up against oppressive authoritarianism to secure a more democratic political system and a brighter economic future." The Arab Spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction, particularly of youth and unions, with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels and pressures caused by the Great Recession may have had a hand as well. Other sources confirm the US government's support of the uprisings, funded largely by the National Endowment for Democracy.
Arab Spring In the aftermath of the Arab Spring in various countries, there was a wave of violence and instability commonly known as the Arab Winter or Islamist Winter. The Arab Winter was characterized by extensive civil wars, general regional instability, economic and demographic decline of the Arab League and overall religious wars between Sunni and Shia Muslims.
Arab Spring A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power went up for grabs across the Arab world. Ultimately it came down to a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states. The early hopes that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, and bring about greater economic equity, quickly collapsed in the wake of the counterrevolutionary moves of the deep state in Egypt, the regional and international interventions in Bahrain and Yemen, and the destructive civil wars in Syria and Libya.
President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic The President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is the head of state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), a government in exile based in the Sahrawi refugee camps of Tindouf, Algeria.
Arab Spring Some trends in political Islam resulting from the Arab Spring noted by observers (Quinn Mecham and Tarek Osman) include:
Arab Spring The causes of the Arab Spring may also be interpreted through the lenses of various theories of revolution and democratization, including Relative Deprivation Theory and Modernization Theory
Women in the Arab Spring Women played a variety of roles in the Arab Spring, but its impact on women and their rights is unclear. The Arab Spring was a series of demonstrations, protests, and civil wars against authoritarian regimes that started in Tunisia and spread to much of the Arab world. The leaders of Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen were overthrown; Bahrain has experienced sustained civil disorder, and the protests in Syria have become a civil war. Other Arab countries experienced protests as well.
Elections in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Elections in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic gives information on election and election results in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR).
Algeria–Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations Algeria–Sahrawi Republic relations refers to the current and historical relations between the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). Algeria was the 3rd state of the World on recognizing the SADR, on March 6, 1976 and formal diplomatic relations were established soon after. A Sahrawi embassy was opened in Algiers that year, during the Houari Boumedienne government.
Arab Spring The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa that commenced in 2010, became known as the "Arab Spring", and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter", "Arab Awakening" or "Arab Uprisings" even though not all the participants in the protests were Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen, then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests also triggered similar unrest outside the region.
Women in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Women in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic are women who were born in, who live in, or are from the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in the region of the Western Sahara. In Sahrawi society, the women share responsibilities at every level of its community and social organization. Article 41 of the Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic ensures that the state will pursue "the promotion of women and [their] political, social and cultural participation, in the construction of society and the country's development".
Jewish and democratic state "Jewish and democratic state" is the Israeli legal definition of the nature and character of the State of Israel. The "Jewish" nature was first defined within the Declaration of Independence of 1948 (see Jewish state and Jewish homeland). The "Democratic" character was first officially added in the amendment to the Basic Law: the Knesset that was passed in 1985 (amendment 9, clause 7A).
Arab Spring Although the long-term effects of the Arab Spring have yet to be shown, its short-term consequences varied greatly across the Middle East and North Africa. In Tunisia and Egypt, where the existing regimes were ousted and replaced through a process of free and fair election, the revolutions were considered short-term successes. This interpretation is, however, problematized by the subsequent political turmoil that emerged, particularly in Egypt. Elsewhere, most notably in the monarchies of Morocco and the Persian Gulf, existing regimes co-opted the Arab Spring movement and managed to maintain order without significant social change. In other countries, particularly Syria and Libya, the apparent result of Arab Spring protests was a complete collapse of social order.
Arab Spring The Arab Spring (, Kurdish: "Bihar Kurdî-Erebi", Berber: "Tafsut Tamaziɣt") or Democracy Spring (, Kurdish: "Bihar dimûqratîk", Berber: "Tafsut Tadimokratit") was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Kenya–Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations Kenya–Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations are bilateral relations between the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and Kenya.
Impact of the Arab Spring "The Wall Street Journal", among other media outlets, has drawn a connection between the secular MNLA's vision for a democratic Azawad to the Arab Spring revolts, though as with many of the uprisings in the Middle East, Islamist factions have contested this view of Azawad's future. Ansar Dine has called for "sharia" law throughout all of Mali, not just Azawad. The Azawadi declaration of independence has also faced significant pushback from the international community, with no state or international body recognising the "de facto" state and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) mulling options for an international military intervention against the rebels.