Arch of Titus: Rome and the Menorah

Start Date: 09/13/2020

Course Type: Common Course

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About Course

The Arch of Titus: Rome and the Menorah explores one of the most significant Roman monuments to survive from antiquity, from the perspectives of Roman, Jewish and later Christian history and art. The Arch of Titus commemorates the destruction of Jerusalem by the emperor Titus in 70 CE, an event of pivotal importance for the history of the Roman Empire, of Judaism, of Christianity and of modern nationalism. Together with your guide, Professor Steven Fine, you will examine ancient texts and artifacts, gaining skills as a historian as you explore the continuing significance of the Arch of Titus from antiquity to the very present. Course members will accompany Professor Fine on virtual "fieldtrips" to museums and historical sites in Los Angeles and New York where you will "meet" curators, scholars and artists. You will attend an academic colloquium and even "participate" in office hours. Students will participate in the latest advancement in the study of the Arch - the restoration of its original colors. You will learn how color was used in Roman antiquity and apply that knowledge to complete your own 'color restoration' of the Arch of Titus menorah relief.

Course Syllabus

This module introduces the Arch of Titus and the larger themes of the course. Students will begin to view the Arch from the perspectives of Roman and Jewish history, of the victors and the vanquished, and the continuing history of this artifact. They will be sensitized to the presence of imagery related to the Arch in the larger culture, and be able to identity some of that imagery.

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Course Introduction

Arch of Titus: Rome and the Menorah The Arch of Titus: Rome and the Menorah will explore the history of the city of Rome, its capital, its greatest monuments, and its enduring fascination for visitors of all ages and disciplines. The course will explore the themes and elements of Roman history most associated with the Roman capital: Rome and the Mediterranean. For many Romans, Rome represented an ideal and the center of their cultural life. Studying and commemorating the life and achievements of Rome's most important city is a way of life dedicated to the memory and understanding of a people. The course will explore the elements of Roman history most associated with the Roman capital: Rome and the Mediterranean. The course will look at the city walls, the reasons for its glory, the people and groups that shaped Rome's cultural life, and the tragic events of the city's history. The course will consider the legacy of the destruction it left behind: the decay of Rome's center, the decay that followed the fall of Jerusalem, and the rise of urban culture and nobility. The course will take you on a journey through Roman history, bringing you closer to the core of the city than ever before.You will get an opportunity to explore the elements of Roman history most associated with the city of Rome: Rome and the Mediterranean. You will also learn how the Romans commemorated the glory of their city and the history of the city. They put their artistic stamp on the city, and it is the city that they hope

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Related Wiki Topic

Article Example
Menorah (Temple) The fate of the menorah used in the Second Temple is recorded by Josephus, who states that it was brought to Rome and carried along during the triumph of Vespasian and Titus. The menorah was deposited afterwards in the Temple of Peace in Rome. The relief on the wall at the Arch of Titus in Rome depicts a scene of Roman soldiers carrying away the spoils of the Second Temple, in particular, the seven-branched menorah, or candelabrum.
Menorah (Temple) A menorah appears in the coat of arms of the State of Israel, based on the depiction of the menorah on the Arch of Titus.
Knesset Menorah The choice of the Menorah-symbol as a gift is based on the emblem of the State of Israel, chosen by the first Knesset. The outline of the Knesset Menorah and that appearing on Israel's state emblem are both based on the Menorah from the Arch of Titus in Rome. The Arch bears a relief depicting captured Jewish rebels from the Jewish revolt of 66-74 CE, presented in triumph to the people of Rome while bearing the treasures of the Second Temple after its destruction in 70 CE, including the Temple Menorah. The Arch is dated to 81 CE, and so the depiction of the Temple Menorah is considered by some to be accurate, assuming that the artist who created the relief must have seen the Menorah with his own eyes.
Arch of Titus The menorah depicted on the Arch served as the model for the menorah used on the emblem of the state of Israel.
Titus The war in Judaea and the life of Titus, particularly his relationship with Berenice, have inspired writers and artists through the centuries. The bas-relief in the Arch of Titus has been influential in the depiction of the destruction of Jerusalem, with the Menorah frequently being used to symbolise the looting of the Second Temple.
Arch of Titus The south panel depicts the spoils taken from the Temple in Jerusalem. The golden candelabrum or Menorah is the main focus and is carved in deep relief. Other sacred objects being carried in the triumphal procession are the Gold Trumpets, the fire pans for removing the ashes from the altar, and the Table of Shew bread. These spoils were likely originally colored gold, with the background in blue. In 2012 the Arch of Titus Digital Restoration Project discovered remains of yellow ochre paint on the menorah relief.
Arch of Titus (Circus Maximus) The lesser-known Arch of Titus was a triple arch erected by the east end of the Circus Maximus by the Senate in 81 AD, in honour of Titus and his capture of Jerusalem in the First Jewish–Roman War. Few traces remain. The inscription ("CIL" 6.944), quoted by an 8th-century Swiss monk known only as the "Einsiedeln Anonymous", makes it clear that this was Titus' triumphal arch. Sculptural fragments of a military frieze have been attributed to the arch.
Arch of Titus The Arch of Titus (; ) is a 1st-century AD. honorific arch, located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum. It was constructed in c. AD. 82 by the Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus's victories, including the Siege of Jerusalem (AD 70). The arch has provided the general model for many triumphal arches erected since the 16th century—perhaps most famously it is the inspiration for the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France.
Arch of Titus Works modeled on, or inspired by, the Arch of Titus include:
Menorah (Temple) In 2009, the ruins of a synagogue with pottery dating from before the destruction of the Second Temple were discovered under land in Magdala owned by the "Legionaries of Christ", who had intended to construct a center for women's studies. Inside that synagogue's ruins was discovered a rectangular stone, which had on its surface, among other ornate carvings, a depiction of the seven-lamp menorah differing markedly from the depiction on the Arch of Titus, which could possibly have been carved by an eyewitness to the actual menorah present at the time in the Temple at Jerusalem. This menorah has arms which are polygonal, not rounded, and the base is not graduated but triangular. It is notable, however, that this artifact was found a significant distance from Jerusalem and the Arch of Titus has often been interpreted as an eyewitness account of the original menorah being looted from the temple in Jerusalem.
Arch of Augustus, Rome It had three passageways, the first such arch in Rome, and served as a model for the Arch of Septimius Severus, which was the model for the Arch of Constantine.
Fusiliers' Arch The proportions of the structure are said to be modelled on the Arch of Titus in Rome. It is wide and high. The internal dimensions of the arch are 5.6 m high by 3.7 m wide (18 by 12 ft).
Arch of Titus The medieval Latin travel guide Mirabilia Urbis Romae noted the monument, writing: "the arch of the Seven Lamps of Titus and Vespasian; [where is Moses his candlestick having seven branches, with the Ark, at the foot of the Cartulary Tower"]
Arch of Titus The soffit of the axial archway is deeply coffered with a relief of the apotheosis of Titus at the center. The sculptural program also includes two panel reliefs lining the passageway within the arch. Both commemorate the joint triumph celebrated by Titus and his father Vespasian in the summer of 71.
Menorah (Temple) The Temple Institute has created a life-sized menorah, designed by goldsmith Chaim Odem, intended for use in a future Third Temple, The Jerusalem Post describes the menorah as made "according to excruciatingly exacting Biblical specifications and prepared to be pressed into service immediately should the need arise.". The menorah is made of one talent (interpreted as 45 kg) of 24 karat pure gold, hammered out of a single block of solid gold, with decorations based on the depiction of the original in the Arch of Titus and the Temple Institute's interpretation of the relevant religious texts.
Arch of Titus The sculpture of the outer faces of the two great piers was lost when the Arch of Titus was incorporated in medieval defensive walls. The attic of the arch was originally crowned by more statuary, perhaps of a gilded chariot. The main inscription used to be ornamented by letters made of perhaps silver, gold or some other metal.
Titus The triumphal Arch of Titus, which stands at one entrance to the Forum, memorializes the victory of Titus.
Arch of Titus (painting) George Peter Alexander Healy, a portrait artist, was living in Italy during the time that he collaborated on The Arch of Titus. Born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1813, Healy received encouragement from painter Thomas Sully to pursue his artistic career. After opening his own portrait studio at the age of eighteen, Healy realized that he did not have the professional skills necessary in order for him to reach his fullest potential as an artist. Because of this, in 1834, he went to Paris to study with artist Antoine Jean Gros at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, one of the most influential art schools in France. The school focused on classical styles and on preserving these ideas to be passed on to future generations. After finishing school Healy completed a yearlong tenure under Gros. After this, by the mid-1840s, Healy’s reputation had begun to grow and he began painting portrait for prominent figures such as Lewis Cass, the American minister to France and Louis-Phillipe, king of the French. Eventually, Healy gained international recognition and a broad range of clientele. With his wife and seven children, Healy alternated residence between Europe and American. He continued to paint some of the most well known people of his time. One of his commissions included a series or portraits of the American presidents. In 1866 Healy moved with his family to Rome, and it was during his time there that he collaborated on The Arch of Titus. Healy’s contribution to The Arch of Titus was the figures, fittingly as he was a portrait painter. Throughout all his paintings, his sitters are always represented in a pleasant manner and evoked a certain sense of calmness, which is seen true in The Arch of Titus (Fink).
Center for Israel Studies at Yeshiva University The results may transform our understanding of the Arch of Titus, especially the menorah panel, whose original coloration is unknown.
Center for Israel Studies at Yeshiva University The Arch of Titus in Rome commemorates the Emperor Titus’ victory in the Jewish War (66-73 CE). This iconic monument contains bas reliefs of Titus’ triumphal procession through Rome, including a depiction of the seven-branched menorah from the Jerusalem Temple. Long significant for Christian art, this menorah is the symbol of modern Israel. Like the other reliefs on the Arch, the original colors of the menorah relief are no longer visible. New conservation techniques have been successfully recovered traces of the original colors on ancient monuments. We will apply these to the study of the Arch: Noninvasive UV-VIS Absorption Spectrometry will be employed to it for the first time to capture traces of pigments on the relief, and 3D scanning will be used for the first time to capture the geometric detail of the relief. We hope to create the first reconstruction of the polychromy of the relief using the new digital tools for painting and displaying 3D models.