Bacteria and Chronic Infections

Start Date: 09/13/2020

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link:

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About Course

This course will give you an introduction to bacteria and chronic infections. Leading experts in the field will make you familiar with the fundamental concepts of microbiology and bacteriology such as single cell bacteria, biofilm formation, and acute and chronic infections.

Course Syllabus

Dear all, welcome to this last module of the course. In this module you will learn about the evolutionary aspects of biofilms. You will hear about how bacteria adapt to chronic infections and how bacteria can cooperate or fight each other. I hope you will have fun CheersThomas

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Course Introduction

Bacteria and Chronic Infections In this course, you will become acquainted with the concepts of Infection, Antibiotic, and Drug Resistance, and the management of infections in the human digestive system. You will also gain a basic understanding of the innate and adaptive resistance mechanisms that are present in most infectious diseases, as well as the dissemination and spread of resistance. Through the use of evolutionary theory and biomechanics, you will be able to recognize and describe the different organs and systems that are attacked by different pathogens, and describe the changes that occur in the gut flora and the changes that result in resistant bacteria and bacteria-resistant patients. Finally, you will explore the concepts of drug resistance, and its consequences, as well as the need for appropriate antibiotic therapy and the use of pre-clinical models of resistance.Introduction to Infections Bacterial Infections Drug Resistance Antimicrobial Stewardship Biological Dissemination in the Global Health Workforce In this course, you will gain an understanding of the basic concepts of biological transfer and how they affect people. In particular, you will be introduced to concepts of bioethics, bioethics principles, and ethical principles in the global workplace. For example, you will learn to distinguish between an employee's decision to work for a company that practices bioethics and the company’s decision to use or import bioethics into the workplace. You will learn to

Course Tag

Antimicrobial Infection Control Microbiology Bacteriology

Related Wiki Topic

Article Example
Bacteria Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations in bacterial mats called biofilms. These biofilms can range from a few micrometres in thickness to up to half a metre in depth, and may contain multiple species of bacteria, protists and archaea. Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures, such as microcolonies, through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients. In natural environments, such as soil or the surfaces of plants, the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms. Biofilms are also important in medicine, as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in infections of implanted medical devices, and bacteria protected within biofilms are much harder to kill than individual isolated bacteria.
Urinary tract infection Chronic prostatitis in the forms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and chronic bacterial prostatitis (not acute bacterial prostatitis or asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis) may cause recurrent urinary tract infections in males. Risk of infections increases as males age. While bacteria is commonly present in the urine of older males this does not appear to affect the risk of urinary tract infections.
Chronic periodontitis Microaerophile bacteria Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter rectus, and Eikenella corrodens also may play a role in chronic periodontitis.
Skin infections and wrestling Skin infections and wrestling is the role of skin infections in wrestling. This is an important topic in wrestling since breaks in the skin are easily invaded by bacteria or fungi and wrestling involves constant physical contact that can cause transmission of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. These infections can also be spread through indirect contact, for example, from the skin flora of an infected individual to a wrestling mat, to another wrestler. According to the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) Injury Surveillance System, ten percent of all time-loss injuries in wrestling are due to skin infections.
Postpartum infections The most common infection is that of the uterus and surrounding tissues known as puerperal sepsis or postpartum metritis. Risk factors include Cesarean section, the presence of certain bacteria such as group B streptococcus in the vagina, premature rupture of membranes, multiple vaginal exams, manual removal of the placenta, and prolonged labour among others. Most infections involved a number of types of bacteria. Diagnosis is rarely helped by culturing of the vagina or blood. In those who do not improve, medical imaging may be required. Other causes of fever following delivery include: breast engorgement, urinary tract infections, infections of the abdominal incision or episiotomy, and atelectasis.
Bacteria If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, cholera, foodborne illness, leprosy and tuberculosis. A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may only be discovered many years after, as was the case with "Helicobacter pylori" and peptic ulcer disease. Bacterial diseases are also important in agriculture, with bacteria causing leaf spot, fire blight and wilts in plants, as well as Johne's disease, mastitis, salmonella and anthrax in farm animals.
Pathogenic bacteria Although most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial, some are pathogenic. One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium "Mycobacterium tuberculosis", which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pathogenic bacteria contribute to other globally important diseases, such as pneumonia, which can be caused by bacteria such as "Streptococcus" and "Pseudomonas", and foodborne illnesses, which can be caused by bacteria such as "Shigella", "Campylobacter", and "Salmonella". Pathogenic bacteria also cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, and leprosy. Pathogenic bacteria are also the cause of high infant mortality rates in developing countries.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an immune disorder of T cells. It is characterized by chronic infections with "Candida" that are limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and nails. However, it can also be associated with other types of infections, such as human papilloma virus.
Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria associated with hospital-acquired infections include "Acinetobacter baumannii", which cause bacteremia, secondary meningitis, and ventilator-associated pneumonia in hospital intensive-care units.
Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple antibiotics. They can cause bacteria infections that pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat for hospitalized patients and especially patients in intensive care units.
Siderophilic bacteria Siderophilic bacteria are bacteria that require or are facilitated by free iron. They may include "Vibrio vulnificus", "Listeria monocytogenes", "Yersinia enterocolica", "Salmonella enterica" (serotype Typhimurium), "Klebsiella pneumoniae" and "Escherichia coli". One possible symptom of haemochromatosis is susceptibility to infections from these species.
Bacteria "Gram-positive bacteria" possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and "teichoic acids". In contrast, "gram-negative bacteria" have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing "lipopolysaccharides" and lipoproteins. Lipopolysaccharides, also called "endotoxins", are composed of polysaccharides and "lipid A" that is responsible for much of the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria. Most bacteria have the gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria have the alternative gram-positive arrangement. These two groups were previously known as the low G+C and high G+C gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility; for instance, vancomycin can kill only gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against gram-negative pathogens, such as "Haemophilus influenzae" or "Pseudomonas aeruginosa". If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a "protoplast", whereas if it is partially removed, it is called a "spheroplast". "β"-Lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin, inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. The enzyme lysozyme, found in human tears, also digests the cell wall of bacteria and is the body's main defence against eye infections.
Chronic periodontitis Anaerobic species of bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium sp. have all been implicated in chronic periodontitis.
Sparfloxacin The compound is indicated for treating community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (acute sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible bacteria, community-acquired pneumonia).
Bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.
Chronic wound Like ischemia, bacterial colonization and infection damage tissue by causing a greater number of neutrophils to enter the wound site. In patients with chronic wounds, bacteria with resistances to antibiotics may have time to develop. In addition, patients that carry drug resistant bacterial strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have more chronic wounds.
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Acute exacerbation of COPD also known as acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms (shortness of breath, quantity and color of phlegm) that typically lasts for several days. It may be triggered by an infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants. Typically, infections cause 75% or more of the exacerbations; bacteria can roughly be found in 25% of cases, viruses in another 25%, and both viruses and bacteria in another 25%. Airway inflammation is increased during the exacerbation resulting in increased hyperinflation, reduced expiratory air flow and decreased gas exchange.
Innate immune system Bacteria and fungi may form complex biofilms, protecting from immune cells and proteins; biofilms are present in the chronic "Pseudomonas aeruginosa" and "Burkholderia cenocepacia" infections characteristic of cystic fibrosis.
Skin infections and wrestling Bacterial infections, or pathogens, make up the largest category of include Furuncles, Carbuncles, Folliculitis, Impetigo, Cellulitis or Erysipelas, and Staphylococcal disease. These range in severity, but most are quickly identified by irritated and blotchy patches of skin. Bacterial infections, of all skin infections, are typically the easiest to treat, using a prescribed anti-bacterial lotion or crème.
Chronic wound Since more oxygen in the wound environment allows white blood cells to produce ROS to kill bacteria, patients with inadequate tissue oxygenation, for example those who suffered hypothermia during surgery, are at higher risk for infection. The host’s immune response to the presence of bacteria prolongs inflammation, delays healing, and damages tissue. Infection can lead not only to chronic wounds but also to gangrene, loss of the infected limb, and death of the patient. More recently, an interplay between bacterial colonization and increases in reactive oxygen species leading to formation and production of biofilms has been shown to the generate chronic wounds.