Computational Thinking for K-12 Educators: Abstraction, Methods, and Lists

Start Date: Unknown

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/block-programming-k12-educators-abstraction-methods

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How do gamers cause things to happen when they hit buttons on their controller? How does the computer keep track of gamer's scores? This class teaches the concepts of nested loops, events, and variables. For each concept, we'll start by helping you connect real-world experiences you are already familiar with to the programming concept you are about to learn. Next, through a cognitively scaffolded process we'll engage you in developing your fluency with problem solving with nested loops, events, and variables in a way that keeps frustration at a minimum. Along the way you will learn about the common challenges or "bugs" students have with these concepts as well as ways to help them find and fix those concepts. You'll also be guided in running classroom discussions to help students develop deeper understanding of these concepts. Finally, you'll learn how to develop low-frustration learning experiences for learning programming via Parsons' Problems., Additionally, you will create an email to either a counselor, administrator or parent organization to help them understand the value of all students taking computer science.

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How do gamers cause things to happen when they hit buttons on their controller? How does the comput

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Computational thinking Jeannette Wing envisioned computational thinking becoming an essential part of every child's education. However, since her article (published in 2006) integrating computational thinking into the K-12 curriculum has faced several challenges including the agreement on the definition of computational thinking. Currently Computational Thinking is broadly defined as a set of cognitive skills and problem solving processes that include (but are not limited to) the following characteristics:
Computational thinking Current integration computational thinking into the K-12 curriculum comes in two forms: in computer science classes directly or through the use and measure of computational thinking techniques in other subjects. Teachers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) focused classrooms that include computational thinking, allow students to practice problem-solving skills such as trial and error (Barr, et al, 2011). Valerie Barr and Chris Stephenson describe computational thinking patterns across disciplines in a 2011 ACM Inroads article However Conrad Wolfram has argued that computational thinking should be taught as a distinct subject.
Computational thinking Computational Thinking (CT) is the thought processes involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution(s) in such a way that a computer—human or machine—can effectively carry out. Computational Thinking is an iterative process based on three stages: 1) Problem Formulation (abstraction), 2) Solution Expression (automation), and 3) Solution Execution & Evaluation (analyses) captured by the figure to the right. The term "computational thinking" was first used by Seymour Papert in 1980 and again in 1996. Computational thinking can be used to algorithmically solve complicated problems of scale, and is often used to realize large improvements in efficiency.
Computational thinking The characteristics that define computational thinking are decomposition, pattern recognition / data representation, generalization/abstraction, and algorithms. By decomposing a problem, identifying the variables involved using data representation, and creating algorithms, a generic solution results. The generic solution is a generalization or abstraction that can be used to solve a multitude of variations of the initial problem.
Computational thinking The phrase "computational thinking" was brought to the forefront of the computer science community as a result of an ACM Communications article on the subject by Jeannette Wing. The article suggested that thinking computationally was a fundamental skill for everyone, not just computer scientists, and argued for the importance of integrating computational ideas into other disciplines.
Computational thinking The concept of Computational Thinking has been criticized as too vague, as it's rarely made clear how it is different from other forms of thought. Some computer scientists worry about the promotion of Computational Thinking as a substitute for a broader computer science education, as computational thinking represents just one small part of the field. Others worry that the emphasis on Computational Thinking encourages computer scientists to think too narrowly about the problems they can solve, thus avoiding the social, ethical and environmental implications of the technology they create.
Computational thinking There are a handful of online institutions which provide curriculum, and other related resources to build and strengthen pre-college students with Computational Thinking, Analysis and Problems Solving. One prominent one is the Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy. It offers training sessions for both pre-college students, as well as teachers. CMU's programs exercise instructional scaffolding methods via engineering process. There is also another online site named legoengineering.com. offering similar resources.
Computational thinking Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh has a Center for Computational Thinking. The Center's major activity is conducting PROBEs or PROBlem-oriented Explorations. These PROBEs are experiments that apply novel computing concepts to problems to show the value of computational thinking. A PROBE experiment is generally a collaboration between a computer scientist and an expert in the field to be studied. The experiment typically runs for a year. In general, a PROBE will seek to find a solution for a broadly applicable problem and avoid narrowly focused issues. Some examples of PROBE experiments are optimal kidney transplant logistics and how to create drugs that do not breed drug-resistant viruses.
Computational thinking As far as a physical facility, in Central New Jersey, there is a small institution, named Storming Robots, offering technology programs to Grade 4 to 12 with an emphasis on Algorithmic and Computational Thinking via robotics projects throughout the school year. Students may follow its road map starting from Grade 4 until they graduate to college.
International Meeting on Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics The International Meeting on Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics (CIBB) is a preeminent yearly conference focused on machine learning and computational intelligence applied to bioinformatics and biostatistics.
Computational archaeology Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.g. computational biology, computational physics and computational sociology), the term is reserved for (generally mathematical) methods that could not realistically be performed without the aid of a computer.
International Journal of Computational Methods The International Journal of Computational Methods has been published by World Scientific since 2004. It covers modern computational methods, such as interpolations and approximation techniques and real-time computation. It aims for interdisciplinary coverage of real-life applications, whether in theoretical, simulated forms or actual programming.
Abstraction Carl Jung's definition of abstraction broadened its scope beyond the thinking process to include exactly four mutually exclusive, different complementary psychological functions: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking. Together they form a structural totality of the differentiating abstraction process. Abstraction operates in one of these functions when it excludes the simultaneous influence of the other functions and other irrelevancies, such as emotion. Abstraction requires selective use of this structural split of abilities in the psyche. The opposite of abstraction is concretism. "Abstraction" is one of Jung's 57 definitions in Chapter XI of "Psychological Types".
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering Areas of research published in the journal include modeling; solution techniques and applications of computational methods in areas including liquid and gas dynamics, solid and structural mechanics, biomechanics); variational formulations and numerical algorithms related to implementation of the finite and boundary element methods; finite difference and finite volume methods and other computational methods.
Design thinking There are currently many researchers exploring the intersection of design thinking and education. The REDLab group, from Stanford University's Graduate School of Education, conducts research into design thinking in K-12, secondary, and post-secondary settings. The Hasso Plattner Design Thinking Research Program is a collaborative program between Stanford University and the Hasso Plattner Institute from Potsdam, Germany. The Hasso Plattner Design Thinking Research Program's mission is to "apply rigorous academic methods to understand how and why design thinking innovation works and fails."
Design thinking The accountability to succeed on high-stakes standardized tests in K-12 environments prevents the implementation of design thinking curriculum. Educators feel that focusing on classic curriculum will better prepare their students to perform well on these exams. Resistance to design thinking also springs from concerns about the appropriateness of applying design thinking to an educational setting. It has been argued that design thinking is best applied by professionals who know a field well. Therefore, K-12 students who are limited by their reduced understanding of both the field and their still developing intellectual capacities may not be best suited to design thinking activities.
Protein methods Protein methods are the techniques used to study proteins. There are experimental methods for studying proteins (e.g., for detecting proteins, for isolating and purifying proteins, and for characterizing the structure and function of proteins, often requiring that the protein first be purified). Computational methods typically use computer programs to analyze proteins. However, many experimental methods (e.g., mass spectrometry) require computational analysis of the raw data.
Cognitive city A further base for cognitive computing is computational thinking. The goal of computational thinking is to find solutions to complex problems (problem solving) within a city and to get an understanding of human behavior with the help of computer science. Computational thinking allows to operate on different levels of abstraction and to mechanize them through precise notation and models.
Computational engineering Computational Science and Engineering methods and frameworks include:
Computational science Algorithms and mathematical methods used in computational science are varied. Commonly applied methods include: