Understanding Cancer Metastasis

Start Date: 05/31/2020

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/cancer-metastasis

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About Course

Over 500,000 people in the United States and over 8 million people worldwide are dying from cancer every year. As people live longer, the incidence of cancer is rising worldwide, and the disease is expected to strike over 20 million people annually by 2030. Everyone has been, or will be touched by cancer in some way during their lifetime. Thanks to years of dedication and commitment to research we’ve made enormous advances in the prevention and treatment of cancer, But there is still a lot of work to be done. In this course, physicians and scientists at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine explain how cancer spreads or metastasizes. We’ll describe the major theories of metastasis and then describe the biology behind the steps in metastasis. The course also describes the major organs targeted by metastasis and describes how metastases harm the patient.

Course Syllabus

In this module, we'll focus on uncontrolled cell division, which is a defining property of cancer, as well as mutation and neoangiogenesis and their roles in tumor formation. We'll also take a look at a primary tumor microenvironment and its component cell types.

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Course Introduction

Understanding Cancer Metastasis This course is designed to provide an introduction to the basic cancer biology and cancer treatment. The course will cover the major body sites of the cancer population, as well as the mechanisms of cancer metastasis. The course will also cover the various methods of cancer diagnosis and treatment, including molecular, cellular, and surgical techniques. The course will also cover the topics of cancer staging and chemotherapy, as well as the differences between the radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The course will also provide an introduction to the patient management of cancer.Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Understanding Phonics: Ear, Vocal, and Percussion This course is designed to introduce the listener to the principles and techniques of ear, voice, and percussion. The course will cover the basics of ear drumming, voice leading, and a basic percussion technique known as a Barrett square. The basic principles of voice leading and chest clearing will be covered as well as the major and minor keys. The course will also cover the basics of voice compression and sustain. The course will also cover the basics of time signatures and how they differ from each other. Barrett square techniques will be reinforced and applied in practice. Barrett square and common musical time signatures will also be covered. The course will also provide an introduction to common musical time signatures such as those heard in popular songs such as Prince, Prince, and Katy Perry. Barrett square techniques will be reinforced and applied

Course Tag

Cancer Molecular Biology Cancer Biology Cancer Stem Cells

Related Wiki Topic

Article Example
Metastasis Metastasis is the spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part of the body to another without being directly connected with it. The new occurrences of disease thus generated are referred to as metastases (mets).
Breast cancer During the 1970s, a new understanding of metastasis led to perceiving cancer as a systemic illness as well as a localized one, and more sparing procedures were developed that proved equally effective. Modern chemotherapy developed after World War II.
Metastasis Expression of this metastatic signature has been correlated with a poor prognosis and has been shown to be consistent in several types of cancer. Prognosis was shown to be worse for individuals whose primary tumors expressed the metastatic signature. Additionally, the expression of these metastatic-associated genes was shown to apply to other cancer types in addition to adenocarcinoma. Metastases of breast cancer, medulloblastoma and prostate cancer all had similar expression patterns of these metastasis-associated genes.
Metastasis When tumor cells metastasize, the new tumor is called a "secondary" or "metastatic" tumor, and its cells are similar to those in the original or primary tumor. This means, for example, that, if breast cancer metastasizes to the lungs, the secondary tumor is made up of abnormal breast cells, not of abnormal lung cells. The tumor in the lung is then called "metastatic breast cancer", not "lung cancer". Metastasis is a key element in cancer staging systems such as the TNM staging system, where it represents the "M". In Overall Stage Grouping metastasis places a cancer in Stage IV. The possibilities of curative treatment are greatly reduced, or often entirely removed, when a cancer has metastasized.
Metastasis It was previously thought that most cancer cells have a low metastatic potential and that there are rare cells that develop the ability to metastasize through the development of somatic mutations. According to this theory, diagnosis of metastatic cancers is only possible after the event of metastasis. Traditional means of diagnosing cancer (e.g. a biopsy) would only investigate a subpopulation of the cancer cells and would very likely not sample from the subpopulation with metastatic potential.
Metastasis Cancer researchers studying the conditions necessary for cancer metastasis have discovered that one of the critical events required is the growth of a new network of blood vessels, called tumor angiogenesis. It has been found that angiogenesis inhibitors would therefore prevent the growth of metastases.
Metastasis suppressor Metastasis suppressor genes may offer mechanistic insight for guiding specific therapeutic strategies, which may include drug-induced reactivation of metastasis suppressor genes and their signaling pathways. Clinical assessment of metastasis suppressor gene product status in disseminated cancer cells may improve prognosis accuracy in patients with clinically localized disease. These proteins are different from ones that act to suppress tumor growth.
Metastasis suppressor Unlike tumor suppressors, most metastasis suppressors are downregulated in clinical tumor samples rather than mutated. Activation of these metastasis suppressors can potentially block metastasis and improve survival. The promoter region of NM23 contains glucocorticoid response elements that can elevate NM23 expression. Treating human breast cancer cells with dexamethasone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases NM23 expression.
Bone metastasis Bone is the third most common location for metastasis, after the lung and liver. While any type of cancer is capable of forming metastatic tumors within bone, the microenvironment of the marrow tends to favor particular types of cancer, including prostate, breast, and lung cancers. Particularly in prostate cancer, bone metastases tend to be the only site of metastasis. The most common sites of bone metastases are the spine, pelvis, ribs, skull, and proximal femur.
Metastasis suppressor A metastasis suppressor is a protein that acts to slow or prevent metastases (secondary tumors) from spreading in the body of an organism with cancer. Metastasis is one of the most lethal cancer processes. This process is responsible for about ninety percent of human cancer deaths. Proteins that act to slow or prevent metastases are different from those that act to suppress tumor growth. Genes for about a dozen such proteins are known in humans and other animals.
Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis Metastasis is a process of migration of tumour cells from the primary cancer site to a distant location where the cancer cells form secondary tumors. Metastatic breast cancer represents the most devastating attribute of cancer and it is considered an advanced-stage event. Human breast cancer metastasizes to multiple distant organs such as the brain, lungs, bones and liver.
Kidney cancer Cancer in the kidney may also be secondary, the result of metastasis from a primary cancer elsewhere in the body.
Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis MMTV-PyMT is the model of breast cancer metastasis, in which MMTV-LTR is used to drive the expression of mammary gland specific polyomavirus middle T-antigen, leading to a rapid development of highly metastatic tumors. MMTV-PyMT is the most commonly used model for the study of mammary tumor progression and metastasis. MMTV-PyMT mice are then crossed bred with other genetically modified mice to generate various types of breast cancer models, including:
Metastasis Metastatic cancers may be found at the same time as the primary tumor, or months or years later. When a second tumor is found in a patient that has been treated for cancer in the past, it is more often a metastasis than another primary tumor.
Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis By knocking in/knocking out specific genes by homologous recombination, the extent of metastasis can be measured and new target genes identification can be achieved e.g. a gene that consistently regulates metastatic behavior of cancer cells is TGF-β1. Acute ablation of TGF-β signaling in MMTV-PyMT mammary tumor cells leads to a five-fold increase in lung metastasis.
Metastasis Metastatic tumors are very common in the late stages of cancer. The spread of metastasis may occur via the blood or the lymphatics or through both routes. The most common places for the metastases to occur are the lungs, liver, brain, and the bones.
Kidney cancer For stage 4 kidney cancer, the most common sites kidney cancer metastasis are the lungs, bones, liver, brain, and distant lymph nodes.
Metastasis The identification of this metastasis-associated signature provides promise for identifying cells with metastatic potential within the primary tumor and hope for improving the prognosis of these metastatic-associated cancers. Additionally, identifying the genes whose expression is changed in metastasis offers potential targets to inhibit metastasis.
Breast cancer research stamp Metastasis is the spread of tumors to distant sites. Several of the Breast Cancer Research Stamp Awards are seeking to develop new drugs to prevent cancer progression and metastasis.
Metastasis NFAT transcription factors are implicated in breast cancer, more specifically in the process of cell motility at the basis of metastasis formation. Indeed, NFAT1 (NFATC2) and NFAT5 are pro-invasive and pro-migratory in breast carcinoma and NFAT3 (NFATc4) is an inhibitor of cell motility.