Converter Circuits

Start Date: 08/09/2020

Course Type: Common Course

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About Course

This course can also be taken for academic credit as ECEA 5701, part of CU Boulder’s Master of Science in Electrical Engineering degree. This course introduces more advanced concepts of switched-mode converter circuits. Realization of the power semiconductors in inverters or in converters having bidirectional power flow is explained. Power diodes, power MOSFETs, and IGBTs are explained, along with the origins of their switching times. Equivalent circuit models are refined to include the effects of switching loss. The discontinuous conduction mode is described and analyzed. A number of well-known converter circuit topologies are explored, including those with transformer isolation. The homework assignments include a boost converter and an H-bridge inverter used in a grid-interfaced solar inverter system, as well as transformer-isolated forward and flyback converters. After completing this course, you will: ● Understand how to implement the power semiconductor devices in a switching converter ● Understand the origins of the discontinuous conduction mode and be able to solve converters operating in DCM ● Understand the basic dc-dc converter and dc-ac inverter circuits ● Understand how to implement transformer isolation in a dc-dc converter, including the popular forward and flyback converter topologies Completion of the first course Introduction to Power Electronics is the assumed prerequisite for this course.

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Course Introduction

Converter Circuits This course introduces the basic concepts of converter circuits in the context of bipolar switching. We will start by understanding the characteristics of the mode switching converter and its basic algorithms. We will then learn how to implement the converter in a digital system using the simple linear regulator and the advanced linear regulator. We will then learn how to control the flow of voltage through the converter to implement filters and how to design a feedback control. The following electronics concepts are included: - Current limiting algorithms - Filter driving and roll-off - Feedback control - Mode switching - Mode switching filters - Mode switching filters and roll-off However, to get the most out of this course, you should also learn how to implement the digital converter in software. This is covered in the course in the accompanying "How To" module. You can also connect up your own board to a microcontroller and use it as a reference when you program the circuit. This is presented in the "how-to" notebook in the course. The digital converter used in this course is a simple regulator with a digital input voltage regulator and a digital output current limiter. You will need a breadboard to do this circuit. You can also use a microcontroller and a microUSB to do this circuit.The Introduction The Resistance Curve The Gain Curve The Filters Confronting The

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Article Example
Buck converter The multiphase buck converter is a circuit topology where basic buck converter circuits are placed in parallel between the input and load. Each of the "n" "phases" is turned on at equally spaced intervals over the switching period. This circuit is typically used with the synchronous buck topology, described above.
DC-to-DC converter Most DC to DC converter circuits also regulate the output voltage. Some exceptions include high-efficiency LED power sources, which are a kind of DC to DC converter that regulates the current through the LEDs, and simple charge pumps which double or triple the output voltage.
Power inverter Since most loads contain inductance, feedback rectifiers or antiparallel diodes are often connected across each semiconductor switch to provide a path for the peak inductive load current when the switch is turned off. The antiparallel diodes are somewhat similar to the "freewheeling diodes" used in AC/DC converter circuits.
Protocol converter Protocol Converter applications vary from industry to industry. The protocol converter can be a software converter, hardware converter, or an integrated converter depending on the protocols.
HVDC converter Another type of three-level converter, used in some adjustable-speed drives but never in HVDC, replaces the clamping diode valves by a separate, isolated, "flying" capacitor connected between the one-quarter and three-quarter points. The operating principle is similar to that of the diode-clamped converter. Both the diode-clamped and flying capacitor variants of three-level converter can be extended to higher numbers of output levels (for example, five), but the complexity of the circuit increases disproportionately and such circuits have not been considered practical for HVDC applications.
Foster's reactance theorem A Foster network must be passive, so an active network, containing a power source, may not obey Foster's theorem. These are called non-Foster networks. In particular, circuits containing an amplifier with positive feedback can have reactance which declines with frequency. For example, it is possible to create negative capacitance and inductance with negative impedance converter circuits. These circuits will have an immittance function with a phase of ±π/2 like a positive reactance but a reactance amplitude with a negative slope against frequency.
HVDC converter Another disadvantage of the two-level converter is that, in order to achieve the very high operating voltages required for an HVDC scheme, several hundred IGBTs have to be connected in series and switched simultaneously in each valve. This requires specialised types of IGBT with sophisticated "gate drive" circuits, and can lead to very high levels of electromagnetic interference.
Rotary converter A rotary converter is a type of electrical machine which acts as a mechanical rectifier, inverter or frequency converter.
Ćuk converter The Ćuk converter (pronounced "Chook"; sometimes incorrectly spelled Cuk, Čuk or Cúk) is a type of DC/DC converter that has an output voltage magnitude that is either greater than or less than the input voltage magnitude. It is essentially a boost converter followed by a buck converter with a capacitor to couple the energy.
Ćuk converter As with other converters (buck converter, boost converter, buck–boost converter) the Ćuk converter can either operate in continuous or discontinuous current mode. However, unlike these converters, it can also operate in "discontinuous voltage mode" (the voltage across the capacitor drops to zero during the commutation cycle).
Forward converter While the output voltage of a flyback converter is theoretically infinite, the maximum output voltage of the forward converter is constrained by the transformer turns ratio formula_1:
Catalytic converter Upon failure, a catalytic converter can be recycled into scrap. The precious metals inside the converter, including platinum, palladium and rhodium, are extracted.
Flyback converter The flyback converter is used in both AC/DC and DC/DC conversion with galvanic isolation between the input and any outputs. The flyback converter is a buck-boost converter with the inductor split to form a transformer, so that the voltage ratios are multiplied with an additional advantage of isolation. When driving for example a plasma lamp or a voltage multiplier the rectifying diode of the boost converter is left out and the device is called a flyback transformer.
Boost converter Power for the boost converter can come from any suitable DC sources, such as batteries, solar panels, rectifiers and DC generators. A process that changes one DC voltage to a different DC voltage is called DC to DC conversion. A boost converter is a DC to DC converter with an output voltage greater than the source voltage. A boost converter is sometimes called a step-up converter since it "steps up" the source voltage. Since power (formula_1) must be conserved, the output current is lower than the source current.
Catalytic converter Some three-way catalytic converter systems have air injection systems with the air injected between the first (NO reduction) and second (HC and CO oxidation) stages of the converter. As in two-way converters, this injected air provides oxygen for the oxidation reactions. An upstream air injection point, ahead of the catalytic converter, is also sometimes present to provide additional oxygen only during the engine warm up period. This causes unburned fuel to ignite in the exhaust tract, thereby preventing it reaching the catalytic converter at all. This technique reduces the engine runtime needed for the catalytic converter to reach its "light-off" or operating temperature.
Forward converter While it looks superficially like a flyback converter, it operates in a fundamentally different way, and is generally more energy efficient. A flyback converter stores energy in the magnetic field in the inductor air gap during the time the converter switching element (transistor) is conducting. When the switch turns off, the stored magnetic field collapses and the energy is transferred to the output of the flyback converter as electric current. The flyback converter can be viewed as two inductors sharing a common core with opposite polarity windings.
Facsimile converter In telecommunication, the term facsimile converter has the following meanings:
Henday Converter Station Henday Converter Station is a converter station , near Sundance in the Canadian province of Manitoba.
Buck converter From this equation, it can be seen that the output voltage of the converter varies linearly with the duty cycle for a given input voltage. As the duty cycle formula_13 is equal to the ratio between formula_27 and the period formula_28, it cannot be more than 1. Therefore, formula_29. This is why this converter is referred to as "step-down converter".
Buck converter A complete design for a buck converter includes a tradeoff analysis of the various power losses. Designers balance these losses according to the expected uses of the finished design. A converter expected to have a low switching frequency does not require switches with low gate transition losses; a converter operating at a high duty cycle requires a low-side switch with low conduction losses.