Converter Control

Start Date: 08/09/2020

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/converter-control

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About Course

This course can also be taken for academic credit as ECEA 5702, part of CU Boulder’s Master of Science in Electrical Engineering degree. This course teaches how to design a feedback system to control a switching converter. The equivalent circuit models derived in the previous courses are extended to model small-signal ac variations. These models are then solved, to find the important transfer functions of the converter and its regulator system. Finally, the feedback loop is modeled, analyzed, and designed to meet requirements such as output regulation, bandwidth and transient response, and rejection of disturbances. Upon completion of this course, you will be able to design and analyze the feedback systems of switching regulators. This course assumes prior completion of courses Introduction to Power Electronics and Converter Circuits.

Course Syllabus

A review of the construction of Bode plots of the magnitude and phase of first-order, second-order, and higher-order transfer functions, with emphasis on techniques needed for design of regulator systems. Design-oriented analysis techniques to make approximations and gain insight into how to design ac systems having significant complexity.

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Course Introduction

Converter Control This course introduces the basic concepts of switching regulators, switching controllers, and inverters. It covers the operation, configuration, and design of regulators that are used in industry. Learners will understand the different types of switching regulators, including the common but discrete switching regulators and inverters that are used in industry. They will also understand the basic design of regulators and how they are controlled. Students will also understand the basic features of inverters and regulators that are used in industry. These concepts and skills will be used in conjunction with the design of converter control circuits, which are the basic power converters that run on the grid. This course also extends to inverters that are installed in distributed power systems, which are the power converters that run in parallel on large scale farms or in distributed power grids.Concept 1: Switching Regulator Concept 2: Switching Controllers Concept 3: Switching Controllers & Alternators Concept 4: Converter Control Control of Mobile Robots This course introduces the basic concepts of robotics and provides an introduction to software control of mobile robots. This is the second course in the Robotics and Automation Specialization.Robotic Systems in Practice Control and Programming Basics Control of Mobile Robots (Project) Sustainability and Consumer Behavior Control of Nonlinear Spacecraft Attitude Motion

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Direct torque control DTC has also been applied to three-phase grid side converter control. Grid side converter is identical in structure to the transistor inverter controlling the machine. Thus it can in addition to rectifying AC to DC also feed back energy from the DC to the AC grid. Further, the waveform of the phase currents is very sinusoidal and power factor can be adjusted as desired. In the grid side converter DTC version the grid is considered to be a big electric machine.
Analog signal to discrete time interval converter The ASDTIC circuit used is based around an integrator and a threshold detector. The incoming signal is integrated over time and when it exceeds a threshold, a control pulse is generated by the ASDTIC. Within the converter control circuit outside the ASDTIC, a One-Shot Pulse Generator then generates a pulse of constant length to drive the switching transistor.
Flyback converter Continuous mode has the following disadvantages, which complicate the control of the converter:
Protocol converter Protocol Converter applications vary from industry to industry. The protocol converter can be a software converter, hardware converter, or an integrated converter depending on the protocols.
Buck converter A simplified analysis of the buck converter, as described above, does not account for non-idealities of the circuit components nor does it account for the required control circuitry. Power losses due to the control circuitry are usually insignificant when compared with the losses in the power devices (switches, diodes, inductors, etc.) The non-idealities of the power devices account for the bulk of the power losses in the converter.
Catalytic converter Catalytic converters restrict the free flow of exhaust, which negatively affects vehicle performance and fuel economy, especially in older cars. Because early cars' carburetors were incapable of precise fuel-air mixture control, the cars' catalytic converters could overheat and ignite flammable materials under the car. A 2006 test on a 1999 Honda Civic showed that removing the stock catalytic converter netted a 3% increase in horsepower; a new metallic core converter only cost the car 1% horsepower, compared to no converter. To some performance enthusiasts, this modest increase in power for very little cost encourages the removal or "gutting" of the catalytic converter. In such cases, the converter may be replaced by a welded-in section of ordinary pipe or a flanged "test pipe", ostensibly meant to check if the converter is clogged, by comparing how the engine runs with and without the converter. This facilitates temporary reinstallation of the converter in order to pass an emission test. In many jurisdictions, it is illegal to remove or disable a catalytic converter for any reason other than its direct and immediate replacement. In the United States, for example, it is a violation of Section 203(a)(3)(A) of the 1990 Clean Air Act for a vehicle repair shop to remove a converter from a vehicle, or cause a converter to be removed from a vehicle, except in order to replace it with another converter, and Section 203(a)(3)(B) makes it illegal for any person to sell or to install any part that would bypass, defeat or render inoperative any emission control system, device or design element. Vehicles without functioning catalytic converters generally fail emission inspections. The automotive aftermarket supplies high-flow converters for vehicles with upgraded engines, or whose owners prefer an exhaust system with larger-than-stock capacity.
Remote control In 1980, a Canadian company, Viewstar, Inc., was formed by engineer Paul Hrivnak and started producing a cable TV converter with an infrared remote control. The product was sold through Philips for approximately $190 CAD. At the time the most popular remote control was the Starcom of Jerrold (a division of General Instruments) which used 40-kHz sound to change channels. The Viewstar converter was an immediate success, the millionth converter being sold on March 21, 1985, with 1.6 million sold by 1989.
Catalytic converter Various jurisdictions now require on-board diagnostics to monitor the function and condition of the emissions-control system, including the catalytic converter. On-board diagnostic systems take several forms.
Rotary converter A rotary converter is a type of electrical machine which acts as a mechanical rectifier, inverter or frequency converter.
Ćuk converter The Ćuk converter (pronounced "Chook"; sometimes incorrectly spelled Cuk, Čuk or Cúk) is a type of DC/DC converter that has an output voltage magnitude that is either greater than or less than the input voltage magnitude. It is essentially a boost converter followed by a buck converter with a capacitor to couple the energy.
Ćuk converter As with other converters (buck converter, boost converter, buck–boost converter) the Ćuk converter can either operate in continuous or discontinuous current mode. However, unlike these converters, it can also operate in "discontinuous voltage mode" (the voltage across the capacitor drops to zero during the commutation cycle).
HVDC converter The MMC has two principal disadvantages. Firstly, the control is much more complex than that of a 2-level converter. Balancing the voltages of each of the submodule capacitors is a significant challenge and requires considerable computing power and high-speed communications between the central control unit and the valve. Secondly, the submodule capacitors themselves are large and bulky. A MMC is considerably larger than a comparable-rated 2-level converter, although this may be offset by the saving in space from not requiring filters.
HVDC converter Because thyristors can only be turned on (not off) by control action, and rely on the external AC system to effect the turn-off process, the control system only has one degree of freedom – when to turn on the thyristor. This limits the usefulness of HVDC in some circumstances because it means that the AC system to which the HVDC converter is connected must always contain synchronous machines in order to provide the commutating voltage – the HVDC converter cannot feed power into a passive system.
Sparse matrix converter Characteristics of the Sparse Matrix Converter topology are 15 Transistors, 18 Diodes, and 7 Isolated Driver Potentials. Compared to the Direct matrix converter this topology provides identical functionality, but with a reduced number of power switches and the option of employing an improved zero DC-link current commutation scheme, which provides lower control complexity and higher safety and reliability.
HVDC converter station The three-phase alternating current switch gear of a converter station is similar to that of an AC substation. It will contain circuit breakers for overcurrent protection of the converter transformers, isolating switches, grounding switches, and instrument transformers for control, measurement and protection. The station will also have lightning arresters for protection of the AC equipment from lightning surges on the AC system.
Forward converter While the output voltage of a flyback converter is theoretically infinite, the maximum output voltage of the forward converter is constrained by the transformer turns ratio formula_1:
Catalytic converter Upon failure, a catalytic converter can be recycled into scrap. The precious metals inside the converter, including platinum, palladium and rhodium, are extracted.
Chandrapur back-to-back HVDC converter station The converter station is located from the eastern terminal of the Chandrapur–Padghe HVDC transmission system. The close proximity of the two converter stations meant that the control systems needed to be carefully coordinated, a task made more challenging by the fact that the two stations were built by different manufacturers. To address this problem a series of joint simulation studies, involving the control equipment from both converter stations connected to a common simulator, was performed.
Flyback converter The flyback converter is an isolated power converter. The two prevailing control schemes are voltage mode control and current mode control (in the majority of cases current mode control needs to be dominant for stability during operation). Both require a signal related to the output voltage. There are three common ways to generate this voltage. The first is to use an optocoupler on the secondary circuitry to send a signal to the controller. The second is to wind a separate winding on the coil and rely on the cross regulation of the design. The third consists on sampling the voltage amplitude on the primary side, during the discharge, referenced to the standing primary DC voltage.
Flyback converter The flyback converter is used in both AC/DC and DC/DC conversion with galvanic isolation between the input and any outputs. The flyback converter is a buck-boost converter with the inductor split to form a transformer, so that the voltage ratios are multiplied with an additional advantage of isolation. When driving for example a plasma lamp or a voltage multiplier the rectifying diode of the boost converter is left out and the device is called a flyback transformer.