Start Date: 11/03/2019
Course Type: Common Course |
Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/data-analysis-with-python
Explore 1600+ online courses from top universities. Join Coursera today to learn data science, programming, business strategy, and more.Learn how to analyze data using Python. This course will take you from the basics of Python to explo
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Data analysis | Data integration is a precursor to data analysis, and data analysis is closely linked to data visualization and data dissemination. The term "data analysis" is sometimes used as a synonym for data modeling. |
Data analysis | Analysis of data, also known as data analytics, is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. |
Data analysis | The most important distinction between the initial data analysis phase and the main analysis phase, is that during initial data analysis one refrains from any analysis that is aimed at answering the original research question. The initial data analysis phase is guided by the following four questions: |
Data analysis | In the main analysis phase either an exploratory or confirmatory approach can be adopted. Usually the approach is decided before data is collected. In an exploratory analysis no clear hypothesis is stated before analysing the data, and the data is searched for models that describe the data well. In a confirmatory analysis clear hypotheses about the data are tested. |
Data analysis | The choice of analyses to assess the data quality during the initial data analysis phase depends on the analyses that will be conducted in the main analysis phase. |
Data analysis | Barriers to effective analysis may exist among the analysts performing the data analysis or among the audience. Distinguishing fact from opinion, cognitive biases, and innumeracy are all challenges to sound data analysis. |
Data analysis | Data initially obtained must be processed or organised for analysis. For instance, these may involve placing data into rows and columns in a table format (i.e., structured data) for further analysis, such as within a spreadsheet or statistical software. |
Geometric data analysis | Geometric data analysis can refer to geometric aspects of image analysis, pattern analysis and shape analysis or the approach of multivariate statistics that treats arbitrary data sets as "clouds of points" in "n"-dimensional space. This includes topological data analysis, cluster analysis, inductive data analysis, correspondence analysis, multiple correspondence analysis, principal components analysis and . |
Data analysis | Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing on business information. In statistical applications data analysis can be divided into descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA), and confirmatory data analysis (CDA). EDA focuses on discovering new features in the data and CDA on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses. Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data. All are varieties of data analysis. |
Data analysis | Statistician John Tukey defined data analysis in 1961 as: "Procedures for analyzing data, techniques for interpreting the results of such procedures, ways of planning the gathering of data to make its analysis easier, more precise or more accurate, and all the machinery and results of (mathematical) statistics which apply to analyzing data." |
Data analysis | Several analyses can be used during the initial data analysis phase: |
Data-flow analysis | Data-flow analysis is inherently flow-sensitive. Data-flow analysis is typically path-insensitive, though it is possible to define data-flow equations that yield a path-sensitive analysis. |
Data analysis | The data necessary as inputs to the analysis are specified based upon the requirements of those directing the analysis or customers who will use the finished product of the analysis. The general type of entity upon which the data will be collected is referred to as an experimental unit (e.g., a person or population of people). Specific variables regarding a population (e.g., age and income) may be specified and obtained. Data may be numerical or categorical (i.e., a text label for numbers). |
Structured data analysis (statistics) | Structured data analysis is the statistical data analysis of structured data. This can arise either in the form of an "a priori" structure such as multiple-choice questionnaires or in situations with the need to search for structure that fits the given data, either exactly or approximately. This structure can then be used for making comparisons, predictions, manipulations etc. |
Data analysis | Analysis refers to breaking a whole into its separate components for individual examination. Data analysis is a process for obtaining raw data and converting it into information useful for decision-making by users. Data is collected and analyzed to answer questions, test hypotheses or disprove theories. |
Data analysis | The quality of the data should be checked as early as possible. Data quality can be assessed in several ways, using different types of analysis: frequency counts, descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, median), normality (skewness, kurtosis, frequency histograms, n: variables are compared with coding schemes of variables external to the data set, and possibly corrected if coding schemes are not comparable. |
Data analysis | Exploratory data analysis should be interpreted carefully. When testing multiple models at once there is a high chance on finding at least one of them to be significant, but this can be due to a type 1 error. It is important to always adjust the significance level when testing multiple models with, for example, a Bonferroni correction. Also, one should not follow up an exploratory analysis with a confirmatory analysis in the same dataset. An exploratory analysis is used to find ideas for a theory, but not to test that theory as well. When a model is found exploratory in a dataset, then following up that analysis with a confirmatory analysis in the same dataset could simply mean that the results of the confirmatory analysis are due to the same type 1 error that resulted in the exploratory model in the first place. The confirmatory analysis therefore will not be more informative than the original exploratory analysis. |
Multiway data analysis | Multiway data analysis is a method of analyzing large data sets by representing the data as a multidimensional array. The proper choice of array dimensions and analysis techniques can reveal patterns in the underlying data undetected by other methods. |
Forensic data analysis | The analysis of large volumes of data is typically performed in a separate database system run by the analysis team. Live systems are usually not dimensioned to run extensive individual analysis without affecting the regular users. On the other hand, it is methodically preferable to analyze data copies on separate systems and protect the analysis teams against the accusation of altering original data. |
Social data analysis | Social data analysis is a style of analysis in which people work in a social, collaborative context to make sense of data. The term was introduced by Martin Wattenberg in 2005 and recently also addressed as big social data analysis in relation to big data computing. |