Digital Systems: From Logic Gates to Processors

Start Date: 07/05/2020

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link:

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About Course

This course gives you a complete insight into the modern design of digital systems fundamentals from an eminently practical point of view. Unlike other more "classic" digital circuits courses, our interest focuses more on the system than on the electronics that support it. This approach will allow us to lay the foundation for the design of complex digital systems. You will learn a set of design methodologies and will use a set of (educational-oriented) computer-aided-design tools (CAD) that will allow you not only to design small and medium size circuits, but also to access to higher level courses covering so exciting topics as application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) design or computer architecture, to give just two examples. Course topics are complemented with the design of a simple processor, introduced as a transversal example of a complex digital system. This example will let you understand and feel comfortable with some fundamental computer architecture terms as the instruction set, microprograms and microinstructions. After completing this course you will be able to: * Design medium complexity digital systems. * Understand the description of digital systems using high-level languages such as VHDL. * Understand how computers operate at their most basic level (machine language).

Course Syllabus

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We have collected here everything you need to know before starting the course.

This week is divided into three sections:

  • The first is the one you're reading about now and includes a number of general explanations about how the course will run and about the virtual machine you should install on your computer to answer the different quizzes .
  • The second (Previous knowledge: A review) presents a series of tests you can use to check your level of knowledge about numbering systems and the use of pseudocode to describe algorithms.
  • The third block contains the first real topic of the course: What Digital Systems are?

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Course Introduction

Digital Systems: From Logic Gates to Processors Modern electronics are built on top of big stacks of analog hardware—digital systems take stacks of chips on the order of a gigahertz or microprocessor to drive digital logic. This course covers the hardware architecture of modern digital systems, the digital logic and processing devices that make them run, and how they operate. In addition, you'll learn how software, hardware, and firmware are organized to make digital systems run smoothly. We'll also look at some of the challenges that digital systems may face from a software perspective, how they should be built to meet these challenges, and what you can do to make them run smoothly. This course is designed to teach you how to think about digital systems in the context of their analog counterparts, the digital circuits that drive them, and the software you'll need to use to run the digital systems that you learn about in this class.Digital Logic and the Sysops Processors Software: Hardware, Firmware, and Firmoot Digital Systems Digital Signal Processing Digital signal processing is all around us. It is the science of how digital signals move through our bodies to our computers and phones, and how those computers and phones use those signals to make decisions about when to perform its actions and how much to perform it, all at the level of the physical world. This course deals with the science and technology of digital signal processing, using lectures, labs, and hands-on

Course Tag

Digital Design Digital Circuit Design Boolean Algebra Processor Design

Related Wiki Topic

Article Example
Logic gate In principle any method that leads to a gate that is functionally complete (for example, either a NOR or a NAND gate) can be used to make any kind of digital logic circuit. Note that the use of 3-state logic for bus systems is not needed, and can be replaced by digital multiplexers, which can be built using only simple logic gates (such as NAND gates, NOR gates, or AND and OR gates).
Logic family The following logic families would either have been used to build up systems from functional blocks such as flip-flops, counters, and gates, or else would be used as "glue" logic to interconnect very-large scale integration devices such as memory and processors. Not shown are some early obscure logic families from the early 1960s such as DCTL (direct-coupled transistor logic), which did not become widely available.
Digital electronics The cost of a logic gate is crucial, primarily because very many gates are needed to build a computer or other advanced digital system and because the more gates can be used, the more capable and/or fast the machine can be. Since the majority of a digital computer is simply an interconnected network of logic gates, the overall cost of building a computer correlates strongly with the price per logic gate. In the 1930s, the earliest digital logic systems were constructed from telephone relays because these were inexpensive and relatively reliable. After that, engineers always used the cheapest available electronic switches that could still fulfill the requirements.
Logic gate Non-electronic implementations are varied, though few of them are used in practical applications. Many early electromechanical digital computers, such as the Harvard Mark I, were built from relay logic gates, using electro-mechanical relays. Logic gates can be made using pneumatic devices, such as the Sorteberg relay or mechanical logic gates, including on a molecular scale. Logic gates have been made out of DNA (see DNA nanotechnology) and used to create a computer called MAYA (see MAYA II). Logic gates can be made from quantum mechanical effects (though quantum computing usually diverges from boolean design). Photonic logic gates use non-linear optical effects.
Digital electronics Digital electronic circuits are usually made from large assemblies of logic gates, simple electronic representations of Boolean logic functions.
Digital electronics A digital circuit is typically constructed from small electronic circuits called logic gates that can be used to create combinational logic. Each logic gate is designed to perform a function of boolean logic when acting on logic signals. A logic gate is generally created from one or more electrically controlled switches, usually transistors but thermionic valves have seen historic use. The output of a logic gate can, in turn, control or feed into more logic gates.
Logic gate To build a functionally complete logic system, relays, valves (vacuum tubes), or transistors can be used. The simplest family of logic gates using bipolar transistors is called resistor-transistor logic (RTL). Unlike simple diode logic gates (which do not have a gain element), RTL gates can be cascaded indefinitely to produce more complex logic functions. RTL gates were used in early integrated circuits. For higher speed and better density, the resistors used in RTL were replaced by diodes resulting in diode-transistor logic (DTL). Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) then supplanted DTL. As integrated circuits became more complex, bipolar transistors were replaced with smaller field-effect transistors (MOSFETs); see PMOS and NMOS. To reduce power consumption still further, most contemporary chip implementations of digital systems now use CMOS logic. CMOS uses complementary (both n-channel and p-channel) MOSFET devices to achieve a high speed with low power dissipation.
Diode logic Diode logic gates are used to build diode–transistor logic (DTL) gates as integrated circuits.
NAND logic Because the NAND function has functional completeness all logic systems can be converted into NAND gates. This is also true for NOR gates.
Diode logic The outputs of conventional ICs (with complementary output drive stages) are never directly connected together since they act as voltage sources. However, diodes can be used to combine two or more digital (high/low) outputs from an IC such as a counter. This wired logic connection can be a useful way of producing simple logic functions without using additional logic gates.
Diode logic Digital logic implemented by active elements is characterized by signal restoration. "True" and "false" or "1" and "0" are represented by two specific voltage levels. If the inputs to a digital logic gate is close to their respective levels, the output will be closer or exactly equal to its desired level. Active logic gates may be integrated in large numbers because each gate tends to remove noise at its input. Diode logic gates are implemented by passive elements; so, they have two restoration problems.
Logic family In computer engineering, a logic family may refer to one of two related concepts. A logic family of monolithic digital integrated circuit devices is a group of electronic logic gates constructed using one of several different designs, usually with compatible logic levels and power supply characteristics within a family. Many logic families were produced as individual components, each containing one or a few related basic logical functions, which could be used as "building-blocks" to create systems or as so-called "glue" to interconnect more complex integrated circuits.
Intuitionistic logic Intuitionistic logic, sometimes more generally called constructive logic, refers to systems of symbolic logic that differ from the systems used for classical logic by more closely mirroring the notion of constructive proof. In particular, systems of intuitionistic logic do not include the law of the excluded middle and double negation elimination, which are fundamental inference rules in classical logic.
Direct digital control DDC is often used to control the HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) devices such as valves via microprocessors using software to perform the control logic. Such systems receive analog and digital inputs from the sensors and devices installed in the HVAC system and, according to the control logic, provide analog or digital outputs to control the HVAC system devices.
Microprocessor 32-bit processors have more digital logic than narrower processors, so 32-bit (and wider) processors produce more digital noise and have higher static consumption than narrower processors.
Logic level Nearly all digital circuits use a consistent logic level for all internal signals. That level, however, varies from one system to another. Interconnecting any two logic families often required special techniques such as additional pull-up resistors or purpose-built interface circuits known as level shifters. A level shifter connects one digital circuit that uses one logic level to another digital circuit that uses another logic level. Often two level shifters are used, one at each system: A line driver converts from internal logic levels to standard interface line levels; a line receiver converts from interface levels to internal voltage levels.
Models of neural computation Nervous systems differ from the majority of silicon-based computing devices in that they resemble analog computers (not digital data processors) and massively parallel processors, not sequential processors. To model nervous systems accurately, in real-time, alternative hardware is required.
Digital Storage Systems Interconnect The Digital Storage Systems Interconnect (DSSI) is a bus developed by Digital Equipment Corporation for connecting storage devices and clustering VAX systems and support was extended to MIPS based DECsystem and later to Alpha processor based AlphaServer systems.
Logic gate De Morgan's theorem is most commonly used to implement logic gates as combinations of only NAND gates, or as combinations of only NOR gates, for economic reasons.
Logic family The first CMOS family of logic integrated circuits was introduced by RCA as "CD4000 COS/MOS", the 4000 series, in 1968. Initially CMOS logic was slower than LS-TTL. However, because the logic thresholds of CMOS were proportional to the power supply voltage, CMOS devices were well-adapted to battery-operated systems with simple power supplies. CMOS gates can also tolerate much wider voltage ranges than TTL gates because the logic thresholds are (approximately) proportional to power supply voltage, and not the fixed levels required by bipolar circuits.