Mastering Digital Twins

Start Date: 03/17/2019

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/digitaltwins

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About Course

In this course we will learn about Digital twins fundamentals, how they represent a concept of integration for product related data. The concept of Digital twins is a response to the increasing digitization of product development, production and products themselves. Today, products are complex systems that not only fulfill their intended functions and quality, but also communicate via communication networks with other components, products, clouds and services as well. We are talking about smart products that integrate services into the products and are continuously supported.

Course Syllabus

MASTERING DIGITAL TWINS

Deep Learning Specialization on Coursera

Course Introduction

In this course we will learn about Digital twins fundamentals, how they represent a concept of integration for product related data. The concept of Di

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Article Example
Digital Twins Digital twins refer to computerized companions of physical assets that can be used for various purposes. Digital twins use data from sensors installed on physical objects to represent their near real-time status, working condition or position.
Digital Twins In another context, Digital twin can be also used for monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics. In this field, sensory data is sufficient for building digital twins. These models help to improve the outcome of prognostics by using and archiving historical information of physical assets and perform comparison between fleet of geographically distributed machines. Therefore, complex prognostics and Intelligent Maintenance System platforms can leverage the use of digital twins in finding the root cause of issues and improve productivity.
Audio mastering In the 1990s, electro-mechanical processes were largely superseded by digital technology, with digital recordings stored on hard disk drives or digital tape and transferred to CD. The digital audio workstation (DAW) became common in many mastering facilities, allowing the off-line manipulation of recorded audio via a graphical user interface (GUI). Although many digital processing tools are common during mastering, it is also very common to use analog media and processing equipment for the mastering stage. Just as in other areas of audio, the benefits and drawbacks of digital technology compared to analog technology are still a matter for debate. However, in the field of audio mastering, the debate is usually over the use of digital versus analog signal processing rather than the use of digital technology for storage of audio.
Digital Twins One example of digital twins can be the use of 3D modeling to create a digital companion for the physical object. It can be used to view the status of the actual physical object, which provides a way to project physical objects into the digital world. For example, when sensors collect data from a connected device, the sensor data can be used to update a "digital twin" copy of the device's state in real time. The term "device shadow" is also used for the concept of a digital twin. The digital twin is meant to be an up-to-date and accurate copy of the physical object's properties and states, including shape, position, gesture, status and motion.
Mastering engineer Generally, mastering engineers use a combination of specialized audio-signal processors, low-distortion-high-bandwidth loudspeakers (and corresponding amplifiers with which to drive them), within a dedicated, acoustically-optimized playback environment. The equipment and processors used within the field of mastering are almost entirely dedicated to the purpose; engineered to a high-standard, often possessing low signal-to-noise ratios [at nominal operating levels] and in many cases, the incorporation of parameter-recall, such as indented potentiometers, or in some more-sophisticated designs, via a digital-controller. Some advocates for digital software claim that plug-ins are capable of processing audio in a mastering context, though without the same degree of signal degradation as those introduced from processors within the analogue domain. The quality of the results varies according to the algorithms used within these processors, which in some cases, can introduce distortions entirely exclusive to the digital-domain.
Audio mastering Mastering, a form of audio post production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master); the source from which all copies will be produced (via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication). In recent years digital masters have become usual although analog masters, such as audio tapes, are still being used by the manufacturing industry, notably by a few engineers who have chosen to specialize in analog mastering.
Audio mastering Record mastering became a highly prized and skilled craft, and it was widely recognized that good mastering could make or break a commercial pop recording. As a result, the independent mastering studio was born. Early independent mastering engineers included Doug Sax, Bob Ludwig, Bob Katz and Bernie Grundman and Denny Purcell.
Soundscape Digital Technology Soundscape Digital Technology pioneered Windows based multi-channel studio recording, editing and mastering from the early 1990s, becoming one of the most widely respected Digital Audio Workstations.
Audio mastering Examples of possible actions taken during mastering:
The Mac Twins The Mac Twins are identical twins Lisa and Alana Macfarlane (born 20 May 1988) and are presenters and DJs. Currently they host the Saturday 7pm-11pm show on the digital radio station Virgin Radio UK. Brought up in Edinburgh the twins led separate careers in theatre and dance before joining to become The Mac Twins in 2011.
Audio mastering Although there is no "optimum mix level for mastering", the example in the adjacent picture only suggests what mix levels are ideal for the studio engineer to render and for the mastering engineer to process. It is important to allow enough headroom for the mastering engineer's work. Reduction of headroom by the mix or mastering engineer has resulted in a loudness war in commercial recordings.
Mastering engineer A mastering engineer is a person skilled in the practice of taking audio (typically musical content) that has been previously mixed in either the analog or digital domain as mono, stereo, or multichannel formats and preparing it for use in distribution, whether by physical media such as a CD, vinyl record, or as some method of streaming audio.
TWINS The offset in the orbital phases (apogees at different times) of TWINS 1 and TWINS 2 means that in addition to stereo ENA imaging for several hours twice per day, the two TWINS instruments also obtain essentially continuous magnetospheric observations.
Gemini (digital currency exchange) Gemini is a digital currency exchanger started by the Winklevoss twins in 2015.
TWINS Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) are a pair of NASA instruments aboard two United States National Reconnaissance Office satellites in Molniya orbits. TWINS was designed to provide stereo images of the Earth's ring current. The first instrument, TWINS-1, was launched aboard USA-184 on 28 June 2006. TWINS-2 followed aboard USA-200 on March 13, 2008.
Satanic Twins Satanic Twins is a remix album by the band Of Montreal. The album contains twelve remixes (six each) from their two previous full-length albums: Satanic Panic in the Attic (2004) and The Sunlandic Twins (2005). The album was released as a double LP and digital download. "Satanic Twins" is a portmanteau of the names of the two albums from which its remixed songs originate.
Mastering engineer A professional mastering engineer renders mixes that have a good harmonic balance. Harmonic balancing can be accomplished by correcting and removing tonal imbalances. Once corrected or removed, the audio will be much more pleasurable for listening. This is a fundamental aspect to a mastering engineer's job and the reason why many consider mastering to be a form of art as well as an "audio engineering" discipline.
Mastering engineer The mastering engineer is responsible for a final edit of a product and preparation for manufacturing copies. Although there are no official requirements to work as an audio mastering engineer, practitioners often have comprehensive domain knowledge of audio engineering, and in many cases, may hold an audio or acoustic engineering degree. Most audio engineers master music or speech audio material. The best mastering engineers might possess arrangement and record production skills, allowing them to 'trouble-shoot' mix issues and improve the final sound. Generally, good mastering skills are based on experience, resulting from many years of practice.
Audio mastering Mastering has a special significance for house, techno and other styles of electronic dance music:
Last Drop Mastering Last Drop Mastering is an audio mastering and post-production facility located in San Francisco, California, working with artists online since 1999.