Basics of Extracellular Vesicles

Start Date: 11/29/2020

Course Type: Common Course

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About Course

This course aims to provide the basic knowledge about extracellular vesicles (EV) a generic term including exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, prostasomes, and many others. It covers areas such as EV history, nomenclature, biogenesis, EV cargo as well as the release and uptake mechanisms, collection and processing prior to isolation, different isolation methods, characterization and quantification techniques. This course is divided into five modules. Module 1 is an introduction to the field and will cover the nomenclature and the history of EVs. Module 2 will focus on the biogenesis, release and uptake mechanisms of EVs as well as the different EV cargos (RNA, protein, lipids). In Module 3, we will focus on the collection and processing of cell culture media and body fluids such as blood, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and urine prior to isolation of EVs. Module 4 and 5 will present different isolation methods and characterization/quantification techniques, respectively. Here differential ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, density gradient, kit based precipitation, electron microscopy (EM), cryo-TEM, flow cytometry, atomic-force microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis will be presented. The recommended prerequisites are college-freshman-level biology and biochemistry. After a completed course you should be able to: + Discuss the nomenclature and subgroups of extracellular vesicles. + Describe the RNA, protein and lipid content of extracellular vesicles. + Describe the basic concepts about the most common isolation and characterization techniques and how these techniques are used in the EV field. + State the benefits and limitations of the most common isolation and characterization techniques for extracellular vesicles. + Explain the considerations that are important during the collection and isolation of EVs from different body fluid. + Describe the release and uptake mechanisms of extracellular vesicles All lectures are given in English. Each of the five modules will be followed by an exam. All exams will be in the format of multiple choice questions. The course is organized in collaboration between the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV), University of California Irvine (USA), University of Gothenburg (Sweden) and Pohang University of Science and Technology (South Korea).

Course Syllabus

In this module, we will introduce the course and the field of extracellular vesicles. We will discuss the nomenclature and the history of extracellular vesicles as well as the organisms and places that have been shown to release/contain extracellular vesicles.

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Course Introduction

Basics of Extracellular Vesicles Welcome to the first MOOC of the Specialization. I'm excited to have you in the class and look forward to your contributions to the extracellular Vesicle community! In this course, we'll learn the basics of extracellular vesicles and their roles in the body. We'll also learn about different types of extracellular vesicles, their basic structure and properties, and their applications. We'll learn about what extracellular vesicles are and what they do. We'll also cover topics such as their properties and applications. We’ll start the course with an overview of what extracellular vesicles are and what they do. We'll then dive into various topics such as their composition, structure, and properties. We’ll also start the course with a deep dive into topics such as their applications in the extracellular environments of the body. We’ll also cover topics such as their contribution to extracellular environments in the body, and how they’re used. This course is a great introduction to the extracellular environment of the extracellular vesicles. If you’re new to this subject, proceed through the Earth & Environment class or through the Anatomy & Physiology course on the Biology department of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Etiology & Pathophysiology of Extracellular Vesicles General Overview of Ext

Course Tag

Biology Sample Preparation Sample Collection Cell Biology

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Article Example
International Society for Extracellular Vesicles Among the educational initiatives of ISEV is a massive open online course (MOOC) on the Basics of Extracellular Vesicles, launched in 2016 and available through Coursera. Coordinated by Cecilia Lässer, the MOOC is co-sponsored by the University of Gothenburg, Pohang University of Science and Technology, and the University of California, Irvine.
International Society for Extracellular Vesicles The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) is an international scientific organization that focuses on the study of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, oncosomes, and other vesicles outside the cell. Established in 2011, the society is a non-profit entity and is now a 501(c)(3) corporation in the United States. ISEV is governed by an executive committee. The current president of ISEV (2016-2018) is Andrew Hill; the founding president (2011-2016) is Jan Lötvall. The society publishes the "Journal of Extracellular Vesicles", the only journal devoted to the topic.
International Society for Extracellular Vesicles To disseminate research, ISEV established in 2012 the peer-reviewed and open access "Journal of Extracellular Vesicles", (J Extracell Vesicles or JEV). JEV is included in PubMed and Scopus. The editors-in-chief are Clotilde Théry (Institut Curie), Peter Quesenberry (Brown University) and Yong Song Gho (Pohang University of Science and Technology), and the founding editor was Jan Lötvall (University of Gothenburg). In addition to research and review articles, the journal periodically publishes position papers of the society that are meant to advance standardization efforts.
Extracellular The composition of the extracellular space includes metabolites, ions, various proteins and non-protein substances (e.g. DNA, RNA, lipids, microbial products etc.) that might affect cellular function. For example, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and chemokines act by travelling the extracellular space towards biochemical receptors on cells. Other proteins that are active outside the cell are various enzymes, including digestive enzymes (Trypsin, Pepsin), extracellular proteinases (Matrix metalloproteinases, ADAMTSs, Cathepsins) and antioxidant enzymes (extracellular superoxide dismutase). Often, proteins present in the extracellular space are stored outside the cells by attaching to various extracellular matrix components (Collagens, Proteoglycans, etc.). In addition, extracellular matrix proteolytic products are also present in the extracellular space, especially in tissues undergoing remodelling [2].
Juice vesicles About 5% of the weight of an average orange is made up of the membranes of the juice vesicles.
Extracellular In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid (see extracellular matrix). The term is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell).
Extracellular RNA The potential of extracellular RNAs to serve as biomarkers is significant not only because of their role in intercellular signaling but also due to developments in next generation sequencing that enable high throughput profiling. The simplest form of an exRNA biomarker is the presence (or absence) of a specific extracellular RNA. These biological signatures have been discovered in exRNA studies of cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and prion-related diseases. Recently, in a bioinformatics based analysis of extracellular vesicles (exosomes) extracted from Trypanosoma cruzi where SNPs were mined from transcriptomic data, has showed the probability of finding biomarkers for chagas disease. This shows the significance of ExRNAs not only in the diseases like cancer but also neglected diseases as well.
Juice vesicles The juice vesicles (or pulp) of a citrus fruit are the membranous content of the fruit’s endocarp. The vesicles contain the juice of the fruit. The pulp is usually removed from the juice by filtering it out. The juiciness of the pulp depends on the species, variety, season, and even the tree on which it grew.
Extracellular According to the gene ontology database the extracellular space is a cellular component defined as: "That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. For multicellular organisms, the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix). Gene products from a multi-cellular organism that are secreted from a cell into the interstitial fluid or blood can therefore be annotated to this term".
Douglas D. Taylor Douglas D. Taylor is an entrepreneur and former academic researcher in the field of extracellular vesicles.
Neutrophil extracellular traps Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are networks of extracellular fibers, primarily composed of DNA from neutrophils, which bind pathogens.
Extracellular matrix Described below are the different types of proteoglycan found within the extracellular matrix.
Extracellular RNA Extracellular RNA should not be viewed as a category describing a set of RNAs with a specific biological function or belonging to a particular RNA family. Similar to the term "non-coding RNA", "extracellular RNA" defines a group of several types of RNAs whose functions are diverse, yet they share a common attribute which, in the case of exRNAs, is existence in an extracellular environment. The following types of RNA have been found outside the cell:
Extracellular digestion on the food for extracellular digestion. Small particles of the partially digested food are engulfed
Extracellular RNA To successfully function in extracellular environments, exRNA is often enclosed within a vesicular body to prevent its digestion by RNases. In some cases such as its use in prokaryotic syntrophy, exRNA is not packaged because the recipient cells use the ribnonuclease-digested nucleotides. The use of extracellular vesicles to protect exRNA from degradation is believed to be linked with the use of these containers as a way to transport RNA between cells. Biochemical evidence supports the idea that exRNA uptake is a common process, suggesting new pathways for intercellular communication. As a result, the presence, absence, and relative abundance of certain exRNAs can be correlated with changes in cellular signaling and may indicate specific disease states.
Extracellular matrix Formation of the extracellular matrix is essential for processes like growth, wound healing, and fibrosis. An understanding of ECM structure and composition also helps in comprehending the complex dynamics of tumor invasion and metastasis in cancer biology as metastasis often involves the destruction of extracellular matrix by enzymes such as serine proteases, threonine proteases, and matrix metalloproteinases.
Food Basics Some Food Basics feature a pharmacy, and are known as Food & Drug Basics.
Extracellular digestion Extracellular digestion is a form of digestion found in all saprobiontic annelids, crustaceans, arthropods, lichens and chordates, including vertebrates.
Vesicle (biology and chemistry) In humans, endogenous extracellular vesicles likely play a role in coagulation, intercellular signaling and waste management.
Extracellular matrix In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells. Because multicellularity evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the ECM.