Extracellular Vesicles in Health and Disease

Start Date: 10/20/2019

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/extracellular-vesicles-health-disease

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Course Syllabus

Course Goals and Learning Objectives
Physiological Function of EVs
Pathophysiology of EVs in Cancer
Pathophysiology of EVs in Various Diseases

Deep Learning Specialization on Coursera

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Article Example
International Society for Extracellular Vesicles The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) is an international scientific organization that focuses on the study of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, oncosomes, and other vesicles outside the cell. Established in 2011, the society is a non-profit entity and is now a 501(c)(3) corporation in the United States. ISEV is governed by an executive committee. The current president of ISEV (2016-2018) is Andrew Hill; the founding president (2011-2016) is Jan Lötvall. The society publishes the "Journal of Extracellular Vesicles", the only journal devoted to the topic.
International Society for Extracellular Vesicles Among the educational initiatives of ISEV is a massive open online course (MOOC) on the Basics of Extracellular Vesicles, launched in 2016 and available through Coursera. Coordinated by Cecilia Lässer, the MOOC is co-sponsored by the University of Gothenburg, Pohang University of Science and Technology, and the University of California, Irvine.
International Society for Extracellular Vesicles To disseminate research, ISEV established in 2012 the peer-reviewed and open access "Journal of Extracellular Vesicles", (J Extracell Vesicles or JEV). JEV is included in PubMed and Scopus. The editors-in-chief are Clotilde Théry (Institut Curie), Peter Quesenberry (Brown University) and Yong Song Gho (Pohang University of Science and Technology), and the founding editor was Jan Lötvall (University of Gothenburg). In addition to research and review articles, the journal periodically publishes position papers of the society that are meant to advance standardization efforts.
Vesicle (biology and chemistry) In humans, endogenous extracellular vesicles likely play a role in coagulation, intercellular signaling and waste management.
Extracellular In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid (see extracellular matrix). The term is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell).
Disease management (health) Disease management is of particular importance to health plans, agencies, trusts, associations and employers that offer health insurance. A 2002 survey found that 99.5% of enrollees of Health Maintenance Organization/Point Of Service (HMO/POS) plans are in plans that cover at least one disease management program. A Mercer Consulting study indicated that the percentage of employer-sponsored health plans offering disease management programs grew to 58% in 2003, up from 41% in 2002.
Extracellular The composition of the extracellular space includes metabolites, ions, various proteins and non-protein substances (e.g. DNA, RNA, lipids, microbial products etc.) that might affect cellular function. For example, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and chemokines act by travelling the extracellular space towards biochemical receptors on cells. Other proteins that are active outside the cell are various enzymes, including digestive enzymes (Trypsin, Pepsin), extracellular proteinases (Matrix metalloproteinases, ADAMTSs, Cathepsins) and antioxidant enzymes (extracellular superoxide dismutase). Often, proteins present in the extracellular space are stored outside the cells by attaching to various extracellular matrix components (Collagens, Proteoglycans, etc.). In addition, extracellular matrix proteolytic products are also present in the extracellular space, especially in tissues undergoing remodelling [2].
Vesiculobullous disease A vesiculobullous disease is a type of mucocutaneous disease that is characterized by vesicles and bullae (i.e. blisters). Both vesicles and bullae are fluid-filled lesions, and they are distinguished by size (vesicles being less than 5–10 mm and bulla being larger than 5–10 mm, depending upon what definition is used). In the case of vesiculobullous diseases which are also immune disorders, the term "immunobullous", is sometimes used. Example vesiculobullous diseases include:
Extracellular RNA The potential of extracellular RNAs to serve as biomarkers is significant not only because of their role in intercellular signaling but also due to developments in next generation sequencing that enable high throughput profiling. The simplest form of an exRNA biomarker is the presence (or absence) of a specific extracellular RNA. These biological signatures have been discovered in exRNA studies of cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and prion-related diseases. Recently, in a bioinformatics based analysis of extracellular vesicles (exosomes) extracted from Trypanosoma cruzi where SNPs were mined from transcriptomic data, has showed the probability of finding biomarkers for chagas disease. This shows the significance of ExRNAs not only in the diseases like cancer but also neglected diseases as well.
Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Australia Cardiovascular disease and diabetes are significant health concerns for Australians. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in Australia.
Disease management (health) In the United States, disease management is a large industry with many vendors. Major disease management organizations based on revenues and other criteria include Accordant (a subsidiary of Caremark), Alere (now including ParadigmHealth and Matria Healthcare), Caremark (excluding its Accordant subsidiary), Evercare, Health Dialog, Healthways, LifeMasters (now part of StayWell), LifeSynch (formerly Corphealth), Magellan, McKesson Health Solutions, and MedAssurant.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen that causes foot-and-mouth disease. It is a picornavirus, the prototypical member of the "Aphthovirus" genus. The disease, which causes vesicles (blisters) in the mouth and feet of bovids, suids, ovids, caprids and other cloven-hoofed animals is highly infectious and a major plague of animal farming.
Extracellular RNA To successfully function in extracellular environments, exRNA is often enclosed within a vesicular body to prevent its digestion by RNases. In some cases such as its use in prokaryotic syntrophy, exRNA is not packaged because the recipient cells use the ribnonuclease-digested nucleotides. The use of extracellular vesicles to protect exRNA from degradation is believed to be linked with the use of these containers as a way to transport RNA between cells. Biochemical evidence supports the idea that exRNA uptake is a common process, suggesting new pathways for intercellular communication. As a result, the presence, absence, and relative abundance of certain exRNAs can be correlated with changes in cellular signaling and may indicate specific disease states.
Race and health Health disparities refer to gaps in the quality of health and health care across racial and ethnic groups. The US Health Resources and Services Administration defines health disparities as "population-specific differences in the presence of disease, health outcomes, or access to health care". Health is measured through variables such as life expectancy and incidence of diseases.
Douglas D. Taylor Douglas D. Taylor is an entrepreneur and former academic researcher in the field of extracellular vesicles.
Centre for Community Health and Disease Control The Centre for Community Health and Disease Control (CCHDC) is a department within the Ministry of Health and Family of the Republic of Maldives, tasked with carrying out preventive health services in the archipelago. The department was previously known as the Department of Public Health.
Health in Indonesia Health in Indonesia is affected by air quality, disease, poverty and smoking.
Thyroid disease in pregnancy Thyroid disease in pregnancy can affect the health of the mother as well as the child before and after delivery.
Ullrich disease Ullrich disease is a genetic extracellular matrix diseases of the skin characterized by puffy skin.
Disease management (health) Disease management has evolved from managed care, specialty capitation, and health service demand management, and refers to the processes and people concerned with improving or maintaining health in large populations. It is concerned with common chronic illnesses, and the reduction of future complications associated with those diseases.