Start Date: 07/05/2020
Course Type: Common Course
What are the principles of Population Health Management as a pro-active management approach to improve health and to tackle health disparities? In this course we will discuss the basic principles of Population Health Management that will help you as (future) health care professional or policymaker to analyse current healthcare challenges and to design possible solutions using the Population Health Management Approach. During this course you discuss the rationale for the current value transformation in healthcare and Population Health Management as a logic reaction. You will be confronted with the leading frameworks of Population Health Management. You determine the necessary building blocks, including the evaluation and implementation issues. This Course is part of the to-be-developed Leiden University master program Population Health Management. If you wish to find out more about this program see the last reading of this Course!
Why Population Health Management?
What is Population Health Management?
What is health in Population Health Management?
How to implement Population Health Management?
Population Health: Fundamentals of Population Health Management Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of population health is crucial to informing public policy and program design. This course covers population health in detail, emphasizing the inter- and intra-urban variations. The course also focuses on the multifaceted issues facing health officials and the application of emerging knowledge in clinical public health and public health programming. Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: • Describe variation in the urban/rural distribution of diseases and the factors affecting population health. • Explain the inter- and intra-urban variation in the risk, characteristics, and determinants of population health. • Explain the role of specific factors impacting upon population health. • Understand the components of a multilateral intervention and how they can be implemented within the population health framework. • Perform a population health inventory and provide a description of the scale of the challenge confronting public health officials. • Describe the scope of an intervention and its implementation within the framework of health policy and program design. • Understand the multilateral approach implemented within the framework of health policy and program design. • Explain how the multilateral approach is different from traditional approaches. • List and describe the different instruments and techniques employed to implement interventions. • Explain the dimensions of population health and the processes guiding the implementation of interventions. • Describe the components of a multilateral intervention and the
|Population health||One method to improve population health is population health management (PHM), which has been defined as "the technical field of endeavor which utilizes a variety of individual, organizational and cultural interventions to help improve the morbidity patterns (i.e., the illness and injury burden) and the health care use behavior of defined populations". PHM is distinguished from disease management by including more chronic conditions and diseases, by use of "a single point of contact and coordination", and by "predictive modeling across multiple clinical conditions". PHM is considered broader than disease management in that it also includes "intensive care management for individuals at the highest level of risk" and "personal health management... for those at lower levels of predicted health risk". Many PHM-related articles are published in "Population Health Management", the official journal of .|
|Population health||The following road map has been suggested for helping healthcare organizations navigate the path toward implementing effective population health management:|
|Population Health Management||Population Health Management is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal covering the study of population health, and how it can be improved by improving health care services. It was established in 1998 as Disease Management, obtaining its current name in 2008; the journal's first issue under its current name was published in August 2008. It is published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and the editor-in-chief is David B. Nash (Thomas Jefferson University). According to the "Journal Citation Reports", the journal has a 2015 impact factor of 1.629.|
|Population health||Population health" has been defined as"the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group". It is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of an entire human population. This concept does not refer to animal or plant populations. It has been described as consisting of three components. These are "health outcomes, patterns of health determinants, and policies and interventions". A priority considered important in achieving the aim of Population Health is to reduce health inequities or disparities among different population groups due to, among other factors, the social determinants of health, SDOH. The SDOH include all the factors: social, environmental, cultural and physical the different populations are born into, grow up and function with throughout their lifetimes which potentially have a measurable impact on the health of human populations. The Population Health concept represents a change in the focus from the individual-level, characteristic of most mainstream medicine. It also seeks to complement the classic efforts of public health agencies by addressing a broader range of factors shown to impact the health of different populations. The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, reported in 2008, that the SDOH factors were responsible for the bulk of diseases and injuries and these were the major causes of health inequities in all countries. In the US, SDOH were estimated to account for 70% of avoidable mortality.|
|Population health||Hospitals are finding it financially advantageous to focus on population health management and keeping people in the community well. The goal of population health management is to improve patient outcomes and increase health capital. Other goals include preventing disease, closing care gaps, and cost savings for providers. In the last few years, more effort has been directed towards developing telehealth services, community-based clinics in areas with high proportion of residents using the emergency department as primary care, and patient care coordinator roles to coordinate healthcare services across the care continuum.|
|Population health||From a population health perspective, health has been defined not simply as a state free from disease but as "the capacity of people to adapt to, respond to, or control life's challenges and changes". The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."|
|Population health||Healthy People 2020 is a web site sponsored by the US Department of Health and Human Services, representing the cumulative effort of 34 years of interest by the Surgeon General's office and others. It identifies 42 topics considered social determinants of health and approximately 1200 specific goals considered to improve population health. It provides links to the current research available for selected topics and identifies and supports the need for community involvement considered essential to address these problems realistically.|
|Population Health Research Institute||The Population Health Research Institute (PHRI), is a population health research institute located at McMaster University Medical School. It was founded in 1992 by Salim Yusuf as a preventative cardiology and therapeutics research program and has emerged as a world leading research institute specializing in epidemiological research, population health and randomized clinical trials.|
|Population Health Forum||Activities include development of academic curricula for middle and high schools, advocacy, and maintenance of a population health listserv.|
|Population health||Other researchers such as Richard G. Wilkinson, J. Lynch, and G.A. Kaplan have found that socioeconomic status strongly affects health even when controlling for economic resources and access to health care. Most famous for linking social status with health are the Whitehall studies—a series of studies conducted on civil servants in London. The studies found that, despite the fact that all civil servants in England have the same access to health care, there was a strong correlation between social status and health. The studies found that this relationship stayed strong even when controlling for health-affecting habits such as exercise, smoking and drinking. Furthermore, it has been noted that no amount of medical attention will help decrease the likelihood of someone getting type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis—yet both are more common among populations with lower socioeconomic status. Lastly, it has been found that amongst the wealthiest quarter of countries on earth (a set stretching from Luxembourg to Slovakia) there is no relation between a country's wealth and general population health—suggesting that past a certain level, absolute levels of wealth have little impact on population health, but relative levels within a country do.|
|Population health||Health can be considered a capital good; health capital is part of human capital as defined by the Grossman model. Health can be considered both an investment good and consumption good. Factors such as obesity and smoking have negative effects on health capital, while education, wage rate, and age may also impact health capital. When people are healthier through preventative care, they have the potential to live a longer and healthier life, work more and participate in the economy, and produce more based on the work done. These factors all have the potential to increase earnings. Some states, like New York, have implemented statewide initiatives to address population health. In New York state there are 11 such programs. One example is the Mohawk Valley Population Health Improvement Program (http://www.mvphip.org/). These programs work to address the needs of the people in their region, as well as assist their local community based organizations and social services to gather data, address health disparities, and explore evidence-based interventions that will ultimately lead to better health for everyone.|
|Population Health Metrics||Population Health Metrics (PHM) is a BioMed Central "open access, peer-reviewed, online journal featuring innovative research that addresses all aspects of the measurement of population health, including concepts, methods, ethics, and results." PHM is one of the few journals that focuses on population health and all of its sub-disciplines. The journal is edited by co-editors-in-chief, Christopher J.L. Murray and Alan D. Lopez and is further supported by a 25-person expert Editorial Board. The journal "is tracked by Thomson Reuters (ISI) and has a 2014 Impact Factor of 3.347.|
|Population Health Forum||The Population Health Forum is a group based at University of Washington in Seattle, Washington, and composed of academics, citizens, students, and activists from around North America.|
|Population health||Family planning programs (including contraceptives, sexuality education, and promotion of safe sex) play a major role in population health. Family planning is one of the most highly cost-effective interventions in medicine. Family planning saves lives and money by reducing unintended pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections.|
|Population health policies and interventions||Population health tools and computer systems include data exchange, large datasets, and advanced software which are used to supply data scientists and research teams with appropriate information which can then be used by policy makers and change agents. This method helps to set policies around population health as well as intervention strategies which are then used to respond to the needs of a population.|
|Population health||There is well-documented variation in health outcomes and health care utilization & costs by geographic variation in the U.S., down to the level of Hospital Referral Regions (defined as a regional health care market, which may cross state boundaries, of which there are 306 in the U.S.). There is ongoing debate as to the relative contributions of race, gender, poverty, education level and place to these variations. The Office of Epidemiology of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau recommends using an analytic approach (Fixed Effects or hybrid Fixed Effects) to research on health disparities to reduce the confounding effects of neighborhood (geographic) variables on the outcomes.|
|Population Health Forum||They focus on raising awareness of the population health issue and the social determinants of health. The forum focuses on the role that economic inequality and the gap between rich and poor impact a population’s health, using the “Health Olympics” (a ranking of countries in terms of life expectancy) as a model. The group aims to question why the United States ranks 29th in terms of health while spending half the world’s healthcare bill; it suggests that economic inequality as well as social stressors and loss of social cohesion are prime factors.|
|Population health||As participation in value-based reimbursement models such as accountable care organizations (ACOs) increases, these initiatives will help drive population health. Within the ACO model, hospitals have to meet specific quality benchmarks, focus on prevention, and carefully manage patients with chronic diseases. Providers get paid more for keeping their patients healthy and out of the hospital. Studies have shown that inpatient admission rates have dropped over the past ten years in communities that were early adopters of the ACO model and implemented population health measures to treat "less sick" patients in the outpatient setting. A study conducted in the greater Chicago area showed a decline in inpatient utilization rates across all age groups, which was an average of a 5% overall drop in inpatient admissions.|
|Suboptimal health||Any foundation for understanding population health considers: 1) how population health is defined and measured; 2) the biological, behavioral, cultural, social, and environmental determinants of population health; 3) the role of healthcare and economic decision-making in population health; 4) and intervention and policy strategies for improving population health.|
|Case management (mental health)||In April 2014, The Maine Department of Health and Human Services introduced the Behavioral Health Home case management program which follows a value-based purchasing approach. The Behavioral Health Home provides a holistic and integrated approach to psychiatric case management with a goal to promote increased wellness amongst an agency's entire population.|