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"Mandarin Chinese 1: Chinese for Intermediate Learners" is the first course of the MOOC specializati

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Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion).
Mandarin Chinese Another Mandarin variety of uncertain classification is apparently Gyami, recorded in the 19th century in the Tibetan foothills, who the Chinese apparently did not recognize as Chinese.
Mandarin Chinese In everyday English, "Mandarin" refers to Standard Chinese, which is often called simply "Chinese". Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and syntactic influence from other Mandarin dialects. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the official language of the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan), and one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It also functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and in Taiwan. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name "Chinese". Chinese speakers refer to the modern standard language as
Mandarin Chinese The capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects very influential. Some form of Mandarin has served as a national lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language. Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. It is also one of the most frequently used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally.
Mandarin Chinese The Middle Chinese coda was still present in Old Mandarin, but has merged with in the modern dialects.
Mandarin Chinese The Middle Chinese final stops have undergone a variety of developments in different Mandarin dialects (see Tones below).
Mandarin Chinese profanity The fact that many insults are prefaced with the Mandarin Chinese word for dog attest to the animal's low status:
Mandarin Chinese The Middle Chinese off-glides and are generally preserved in Mandarin dialects, yielding several diphthongs and triphthongs in contrast to the larger sets of monophthongs common in other dialect groups (and some widely scattered Mandarin dialects).
Southwestern Mandarin Though part of the Mandarin group, Southwestern Mandarin has many striking and pronounced differences with Standard Mandarin such that, until 1955, it was generally categorized alongside Cantonese and Wu Chinese as a branch of Chinese varieties.
Mandarin Chinese Linguists use the term "Mandarin" to refer to the diverse group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China, which Chinese linguists call "Guānhuà". The alternative term "Běifānghuà" (), or "Northern dialects", is used less and less among Chinese linguists. By extension, the term "Old Mandarin" or "Early Mandarin" is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty.
Mandarin Chinese As a result, Beijing Mandarin and Northeastern Mandarin underwent more vowel mergers than many other varieties of Mandarin. For example:
East Bay Chinese School The school's classes are held at Westlake Middle School. The school has grown from a student body of 26 in 1981 to over 450 students. Classes are held on Saturday mornings for 32 weeks during the school year. In 2007 the school began offering adult Mandarin classes for both beginning and intermediate learners. Its target group for this service is the members of interracial marriage families. In 2009 it offered 29 total Chinese language classes and 15 Chinese culture classes.
Mandarin Chinese The hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven major groups of dialects have been recognized. Aside from Mandarin, the other six are Wu, Gan and Xiang in central China, and Min, Hakka and Yue on the southeast coast. The "Language Atlas of China" (1987) distinguishes three further groups: Jin (split from Mandarin), Huizhou in the Huizhou region of Anhui and Zhejiang, and Pinghua in Guangxi and Yunnan.
Southwestern Mandarin Southwestern Mandarin (), also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin (), is a primary branch of Mandarin Chinese spoken in much of central and southwestern China, including in Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the northwestern part of Hunan, the northern part of Guangxi, and some southern parts of Shaanxi and Gansu. Some forms of Southwest Mandarin are not entirely mutually intelligible with Standard Mandarin Chinese or other forms of Mandarin.
Comparison of Cantonese and Standard Chinese Mandarin is part of the Mandarin Chinese (Northern Chinese) branch, and Cantonese being part of the Yue Chinese branch.
Mandarin Chinese profanity Originally, the various Mandarin Chinese words for "excrement" were less commonly used as expletives, but that is changing. Perhaps because farting results in something that is useless even for fertilizer: "fàng pì" (; lit. "to fart") is an expletive in Mandarin. The word "pì" (; lit. "fart") or the phrase is commonly used as an expletive in Mandarin (i.e. "bullshit!").
Mandarin Chinese In Mandarin dialects the voicing is generally lost, yielding voiceless aspirates in syllables with a Middle Chinese level tone and non-aspirates is other syllables.
Mandarin Chinese Lessons with Serge Melnyk Mandarin Chinese Lessons with Serge Melnyk is a Website for learning Mandarin Chinese. It was founded in January 2006, to help people interested in learning spoken Chinese for free. Currently the Website provides Mandarin Chinese podcasts, audio lessons, and other study materials used for learning Chinese: 200+ professionally recorded audio lessons, PDF transcripts, videos and study tools. The podcasts are produced by Serge Melnyk and his team of native Chinese speakers.
Mandarin Chinese profanity There are various circumlocutions in Mandarin Chinese for homosexual, and the formal terms are recent additions just as is the direct translation of "masturbation" (hand soiling).
Mandarin Chinese profanity Mandarin Chinese has specific terms and racial euphemisms for different ethnicities, and some discriminatory slurs against representatives from certain governments and backgrounds.