Start Date: 05/19/2019
Course Type: Common Course
Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/ml-classificationExplore 1600+ online courses from top universities. Join Coursera today to learn data science, programming, business strategy, and more.
Case Studies: Analyzing Sentiment & Loan Default Prediction In our case study on analyzing sentiment, you will create models that predict a class (positive/negative sentiment) from input features (text of the reviews, user profile information,...). In our second case study for this course, loan default prediction, you will tackle financial data, and predict when a loan is likely to be risky or safe for the bank. These tasks are an examples of classification, one of the most widely used areas of machine learning, with a broad array of applications, including ad targeting, spam detection, medical diagnosis and image classification. In this course, you will create classifiers that provide state-of-the-art performance on a variety of tasks. You will become familiar with the most successful techniques, which are most widely used in practice, including logistic regression, decision trees and boosting. In addition, you will be able to design and implement the underlying algorithms that can learn these models at scale, using stochastic gradient ascent. You will implement these technique on real-world, large-scale machine learning tasks. You will also address significant tasks you will face in real-world applications of ML, including handling missing data and measuring precision and recall to evaluate a classifier. This course is hands-on, action-packed, and full of visualizations and illustrations of how these techniques will behave on real data. We've also included optional content in every module, covering advanced topics for those who want to go even deeper! Learning Objectives: By the end of this course, you will be able to: -Describe the input and output of a classification model. -Tackle both binary and multiclass classification problems. -Implement a logistic regression model for large-scale classification. -Create a non-linear model using decision trees. -Improve the performance of any model using boosting. -Scale your methods with stochastic gradient ascent. -Describe the underlying decision boundaries. -Build a classification model to predict sentiment in a product review dataset. -Analyze financial data to predict loan defaults. -Use techniques for handling missing data. -Evaluate your models using precision-recall metrics. -Implement these techniques in Python (or in the language of your choice, though Python is highly recommended).
Classification is one of the most widely used techniques in machine learning, with a broad array of applications, including sentiment analysis, ad targeting, spam detection, risk assessment, medical diagnosis and image classification. The core goal of classification is to predict a category or class y from some inputs x. Through this course, you will become familiar with the fundamental models and algorithms used in classification, as well as a number of core machine learning concepts. Rather than covering all aspects of classification, you will focus on a few core techniques, which are widely used in the real-world to get state-of-the-art performance. By following our hands-on approach, you will implement your own algorithms on multiple real-world tasks, and deeply grasp the core techniques needed to be successful with these approaches in practice. This introduction to the course provides you with an overview of the topics we will cover and the background knowledge and resources we assume you have.
In this course, you will create classifiers that provide state-of-the-art performance on a variety of tasks. You will become familiar with the most successful techniques, which are most widely used in practice, including logistic regression, decision trees and boosting.
|Statistical classification||In the terminology of machine learning, classification is considered an instance of supervised learning, i.e. learning where a training set of correctly identified observations is available. The corresponding unsupervised procedure is known as clustering, and involves grouping data into categories based on some measure of inherent similarity or distance.|
|Data science||It employs techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the broad areas of mathematics, statistics, information science, and computer science, in particular from the subdomains of machine learning, classification, cluster analysis, data mining, databases, and visualization.|
|Quantum machine learning||The term quantum machine learning is also used for approaches that apply classical methods of machine learning to the study of quantum systems, for instance in the context of quantum information theory or for the development of quantum technologies. For example, when experimentalists have to deal with incomplete information on a quantum system or source, Bayesian methods and concepts of algorithmic learning can be fruitfully applied. This includes the application of machine learning to tackle quantum state classification, Hamiltonian learning, or learning an unknown unitary transformation.|
|Active learning (machine learning)||Recent developments are dedicated to hybrid active learning and active learning in a single-pass (on-line) context, combining concepts from the field of Machine Learning (e.g., conflict and ignorance) with adaptive, incremental learning policies in the field of Online machine learning.|
|Machine learning||Rule-based machine learning is a general term for any machine learning method that identifies, learns, or evolves `rules’ to store, manipulate or apply, knowledge. The defining characteristic of a rule-based machine learner is the identification and utilization of a set of relational rules that collectively represent the knowledge captured by the system. This is in contrast to other machine learners that commonly identify a singular model that can be universally applied to any instance in order to make a prediction. Rule-based machine learning approaches include learning classifier systems, association rule learning, and artificial immune systems.|
|Machine learning||Some statisticians have adopted methods from machine learning, leading to a combined field that they call "statistical learning".|
|Machine learning||Machine learning also has intimate ties to optimization: many learning problems are formulated as minimization of some loss function on a training set of examples. Loss functions express the discrepancy between the predictions of the model being trained and the actual problem instances (for example, in classification, one wants to assign a label to instances, and models are trained to correctly predict the pre-assigned labels of a set examples). The difference between the two fields arises from the goal of generalization: while optimization algorithms can minimize the loss on a training set, machine learning is concerned with minimizing the loss on unseen samples.|
|Machine learning||Machine learning tasks are typically classified into three broad categories, depending on the nature of the learning "signal" or "feedback" available to a learning system. These are|
|Machine learning||Another categorization of machine learning tasks arises when one considers the desired "output" of a machine-learned system:|
|Machine learning||Machine Learning poses a host of ethical questions. Systems which are trained on datasets collected with biases may exhibit these biases upon use, thus digitizing cultural prejudices. Responsible collection of data thus is a critical part of machine learning.|
|Binary classification||Statistical classification is a problem studied in machine learning. It is a type of supervised learning, a method of machine learning where the categories are predefined, and is used to categorize new probabilistic observations into said categories. When there are only two categories the problem is known as statistical binary classification.|
|Margin classifier||The notion of margin is important in several machine learning classification algorithms, as it can be used to bound the generalization error of the classifier. These bounds are frequently shown using the VC dimension. Of particular prominence is the generalization error bound on boosting algorithms and support vector machines.|
|Boosting (machine learning)||Boosting is a machine learning ensemble meta-algorithm for primarily reducing bias, and also variance in supervised learning, and a family of machine learning algorithms which convert weak learners to strong ones. Boosting is based on the question posed by Kearns and Valiant (1988, 1989): Can a set of weak learners create a single strong learner? A weak learner is defined to be a classifier which is only slightly correlated with the true classification (it can label examples better than random guessing). In contrast, a strong learner is a classifier that is arbitrarily well-correlated with the true classification.|
|Adversarial machine learning||Adversarial machine learning is a research field that lies at the intersection of machine learning and computer security. It aims to enable the safe adoption of machine learning techniques in adversarial settings like spam filtering, malware detection and biometric recognition.|
|Machine learning||Software suites containing a variety of machine learning algorithms include the following :|
|Outline of machine learning||[[Category:Artificial intelligence|Machine learning]]|
|Machine learning||Learning classifier systems (LCS) are a family of rule-based machine learning algorithms that combine a discovery component (e.g. typically a genetic algorithm) with a learning component (performing either supervised learning, reinforcement learning, or unsupervised learning). They seek to identify a set of context-dependent rules that collectively store and apply knowledge in a piecewise manner in order to make predictions.|
|Machine learning||Machine learning is closely related to (and often overlaps with) computational statistics, which also focuses on prediction-making through the use of computers. It has strong ties to mathematical optimization, which delivers methods, theory and application domains to the field. Machine learning is sometimes conflated with data mining, where the latter subfield focuses more on exploratory data analysis and is known as unsupervised learning. Machine learning can also be unsupervised and be used to learn and establish baseline behavioral profiles for various entities and then used to find meaningful anomalies.|
|Quantum machine learning||Quantum machine learning is an emerging interdisciplinary research area at the intersection of quantum physics and machine learning. One can distinguish four different ways of merging the two parent disciplines. Quantum machine learning algorithms can use the advantages of quantum computation in order to improve classical methods of machine learning, for example by developing efficient implementations of expensive classical algorithms on a quantum computer. On the other hand, one can apply classical methods of machine learning to analyse quantum systems. Most generally, one can consider situations wherein both the learning device and the system under study are fully quantum.|
|Waffles (machine learning)||The Waffles machine learning toolkit contains command-line tools for performing various operations related to machine learning, data mining, and predictive modeling. The primary focus of Waffles is to provide tools that are simple to use in scripted experiments or processes. For example, the supervised learning algorithms included in Waffles are all designed to support multi-dimensional labels, classification and regression, automatically impute missing values, and automatically apply necessary filters to transform the data to a type that the algorithm can support, such that arbitrary learning algorithms can be used with arbitrary data sets. Many other machine learning toolkits provide similar functionality, but require the user to explicitly configure data filters and transformations to make it compatible with a particular learning algorithm. The algorithms provided in Waffles also have the ability to automatically tune their own parameters (with the cost of additional computational overhead).|