An Introduction to Consumer Neuroscience & Neuromarketing

Start Date: 06/02/2019

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/neuromarketing

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About Course

How do we make decisions as consumers? What do we pay attention to, and how do our initial responses predict our final choices? To what extent are these processes unconscious and cannot be reflected in overt reports? This course will provide you with an introduction to some of the most basic methods in the emerging fields of consumer neuroscience and neuromarketing. You will learn about the methods employed and what they mean. You will learn about the basic brain mechanisms in consumer choice, and how to stay updated on these topics. The course will give an overview of the current and future uses of neuroscience in business.

Course Syllabus

We first need to define the field – what are the key concepts, what are the key methods and reasons for employing neuroscience to study consumers and communication effects? In this module, we will introduce the topic and how some specific studies provide key insights into what neuroscience has to offer in relationship with more traditional methods.

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Course Introduction

How do we make decisions as consumers? What do we pay attention to, and how do our initial responses

Course Tag

Consumer Behaviour Marketing Consumer Neuroscience Neuromarketing

Related Wiki Topic

Article Example
Consumer neuroscience Consumer neuroscience is similar to neuroeconomics and neuromarketing, but subtle, yet distinct differences exist between them. Neuroeconomics is more of an academic field while neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience are more of an applied science. Neuromarketing focuses on the study of various marketing techniques and attempts to integrate neuroscience knowledge to help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of said marketing strategies. Consumer neuroscience is unique among the three because the main focus is on the consumer and how various factors affect individual preferences and purchasing behavior.
Consumer behaviour Consumer neuroscience (also known as neuromarketing) refers to the commercial use of neuroscience when applied to the investigation of marketing problems and consumer research. Some researchers have argued that the term "consumer neuroscience" is preferred over neuromarketing or other alternatives.
Neuromarketing In the late 1990s, both Neurosense (UK) and Gerald Zaltman (USA) had established neuromarketing companies. In 2006, Dr. Carl Marci founded Innerscope Research, which was acquired by Nielsen in May 2015 and renamed Nielsen Consumer Neuroscience. Unilever's Consumer Research Exploratory Fund (CREF) too had been publishing white papers on the potential applications of Neuromarketing.
Consumer behaviour Consumer neuroscience has become a mainstream component of consumer research methods. International market research company, Nielsen Research, has recently added neuromarketing to its services by acquiring Innerscope, a company specialising in neuromarketing research thus enabling Nielsen to add neuromarketing research to the suite of services available to clients.
Consumer neuroscience Consumer neuroscience is the combination of consumer research with modern neuroscience. The goal of the field is to find neural explanations for consumer behaviors in both normal and diseased individuals.
Neuromarketing Neuromarketing, marketing designed on the foundation of neuroscience, is the most recent mechanical method utilized to understand consumers (Kolter, Burton, Deans, Brown & Armstrong, 2013).
Neuromarketing Companies such as Google, CBS, Frito-Lay, and A & E Television amongst others have used neuromarketing research services to measure consumer reactions to their advertisements or products.
Consumer neuroscience Consumer research provides a real-world application for neuroscience studies. Consumer studies help neuroscience to learn more about how healthy and unhealthy brain functions differ, which may assist in discovering the neural source of consumption-related dysfunctions and treat a variety of addictions. Additionally, studies are currently underway to investigate the neural mechanism of “anchoring”, which has been thought to contribute to obesity because people are more influenced by the behaviors of their peers than an internal standard. Discovering a neural source of anchoring may be the key to preventing behaviors that typically lead to obesity.
Neuromarketing Many of the claims of companies that sell neuromarketing services make are not based on actual neuroscience and have been debunked as hype, and have been described as part of a fad of pseudoscientific "neuroscientism" in popular culture. Joseph Turow, a communications professor at the University of Pennsylvania, dismisses neuromarketing as another reincarnation of gimmicky attempts for advertisers to find non-traditional approaches toward gathering consumer opinion. He is quoted in saying, "There has always been a holy grail in advertising to try to reach people in a hypodermic way. Major corporations and research firms are jumping on the neuromarketing bandwagon, because they are desperate for any novel technique to help them break through all the marketing clutter. 'It's as much about the nature of the industry and the anxiety roiling through the system as it is about anything else."
Neuromarketing Neuromarketing is dynamic, it can relate to nearly anyone who has developed an opinion about a product or brand and has formed preferences. Marketing focuses on constructing positive and unforgettable experiences in consumers minds; it is neuroscience that measures these impacts (Venkatraman, Clithero, Fitzsimons & Huettel, 2012).
Neuromarketing A greater understanding of human cognition and behaviour has led to the integration of biological and social sciences. Combining marketing, psychology and neuroscience, the concept of neuromarketing has established valuable theoretical insights. Consumer behaviour can now be investigated at both an individuals conscious choices and underlying brain activity levels (Shiv & Yoon, 2012). Neuromarketing displays a true representation of reality, superior to any traditional methods of research as it explores non-conscious information that would otherwise be unobtainable. The neural processes obtained provide a more accurate prediction of population-level data in comparison to self-reported data (Agarwal & Dutta, 2015). Marketers are now able to gain insight into consumers' intentions. These tools can be administered to gain understanding on intention and emotions towards branding and market strategies before applying them to target consumers (Agarwal & Dutta, 2015).
Consumer neuroscience Consumer research has existed for more than a century and has been well established as a combination of sociology, psychology, and anthropology, and popular topics in the field revolve around consumer decision-making, advertising, and branding. For decades, however, consumer researchers had never been able to directly record the internal mental processes that govern consumer behavior; they always were limited to designing experiments in which they alter the external conditions in order to view the ways in which changing variables may affect consumer behavior (examples include changing the packaging or changing a subject’s mood). With the integration of neuroscience with consumer research, it is possible to go directly into the brain to discover the neural explanations for consumer behavior. The ability to record brain activity with electrodes and advances in neural imaging technology make it possible to determine specific regions of the brain that are responsible for critical behaviors involved in consumption.
Neuromarketing Neuromarketing is a reasonably new field of discovery; prior research enhanced the knowledge of consumer behaviour until the concept of neuromarketing was created. Theories behind neuromarketing were first explored by marketing professor Gerald Zaltman in the 1990s. Zaltman and his associates were employed by organizations, such as Coca Cola ltd, to instigate brain scans and observe neural activity of consumers (Kelly, 2002). Psychoanalysis techniques such as fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imagining) and other neuro-technologies are used to discover an individual's underlying emotions and social interactions as represented in the scans (Fisher, Chin and Kiltzman, 2011). Zaltman theorised a technique called ZMET; this involved using visual representations to help uncover underlying and deep thoughts within a person (Kelly, 2002). With the use of ZMET, Zaltman aimed to make powerful, emotionally completing advertising. Brain activity was recorded while participants viewed the ad, ultimately to explore and discover non-conscious thoughts of consumers. His research methods enhanced psychological research used in marketing tools (Kelly, 2002).
Buyer decision process Neuroscience is a useful tool and a source of theory development and testing in buyer decision-making research. Neuroimaging devices are used in Neuromarketing to investigate consumer behaviour.
Consumer behaviour Consumer neuroscience research has led to some surprising findings:
NeuroFocus NeuroFocus, Inc. was an American multinational neuromarketing company that was acquired by Nielsen in May 2011. Since that acquisition, Nielsen has acquired additional neuroscience companies and named the consolidated business unit Nielsen Consumer neuroscience.
Neuromarketing However the term 'neuromarketing' was only introduced in 2002, published in an article by BrightHouse, a marketing firm based in Atlanta (Ait Hammou, Galib & Melloul, 2013). BrightHouse sponsored neurophysiologic (nervous system functioning) research into marketing divisions; they constructed a business unit that used fMRI scans for market research purposes (Ait Hammou, Galib & Melloul, 2013). The firm rapidly attracted criticism and disapproval concerning conflict of interest with Emory University, who helped establish the division (Fisher, Chin and Kiltzman, 2011). The new enterprise disappeared from public attention and now works with over 500 clients and consumer-product businesses due to the effective method of neuromarketing (Ait Hammou, Galib & Melloul, 2013).
Neuromarketing Advocates nonetheless argue that society benefits from neuromarketing innovations. German neurobiologist Kai-Markus Müller promotes a neuromarketing variant, "neuropricing", that uses data from brain scans to help companies identify the highest prices consumers will pay. Müller says "everyone wins with this method," because brain-tested prices enable firms to increase profits, thus increasing prospects for survival during economic recession.
Neuromarketing Neuromarketing is a field that claims to apply the principles of neuroscience to marketing research, studying consumers' sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective response to marketing stimuli. Researchers use technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in activity in parts of the brain, electroencephalography (EEG) and Steady state topography (SST) to measure activity in specific regional spectra of the brain response; sensors to measure changes in one's physiological state, also known as biometrics, including heart rate, respiratory rate, and galvanic skin response; facial coding to categorize the physical expression of emotion; or eye tracking to identify focal attention - all in order to learn why consumers make the decisions they do, and which brain areas are responsible. Certain companies, particularly those with large-scale ambitions to predict consumer behaviour, have invested in their own laboratories, science personnel or partnerships with academia.
An Introduction to ..... An Introduction to ... is a 1994 compilation album by Roy Harper.