Organizational Analysis

Start Date: 07/05/2020

Course Type: Common Course

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About Course

In this introductory, self-paced course, you will learn multiple theories of organizational behavior and apply them to actual cases of organizational change. Organizations are groups whose members coordinate their behaviors in order to accomplish a shared goal. They can be found nearly everywhere in today’s society: universities, start-ups, classrooms, hospitals, non-profits, government bureaus, corporations, restaurants, grocery stores, and professional associations are some of many examples of organizations. Organizations are as varied and complex as they are ubiquitous: they differ in size and internal structure; they can entail a multiplicity of goals and tasks (some of which are planned and others unplanned!); they are made up of individuals whose goals and motivations may differ from those of the group; and they must interact with other organizations and deal with environmental constraints in order to be successful. This complexity frequently results in a myriad of problems for organizational participants and the organization’s survival. In this course, we will use organizational theories to systematically analyze how an organization operates and can best be managed. Organizational theories highlight certain features of an organization’s structure and environment, as well as its processes of negotiation, production, and change. Each provides a lens for interpreting novel organizational situations and developing a sense for how individual and group behaviors are organized. Theories are valuable for the analyst and manager because most organizational problems are unique to the circumstances and cannot be solved by simple rules of thumb. Armed with a toolset of organizational theories, you will be able to systematically identify important features of an organization and the events transforming it; choose a theoretical framework most applicable to the observed mode of organizing; and use that theory to determine which actions will best redirect the organization in desired directions. In sum, the course has three goals: to become familiar with a series of real-world organizational phenomena; to learn different theoretical perspectives that can elucidate these phenomena; and to apply these different ways of “seeing” and managing organizations to cases. In such a fashion, the course is designed to actively bridge theory and practice, exposing students to a variety of conceptual tools and ways to negotiate novel situations.

Course Syllabus

This module will give a more elaborate depiction of that model, and focus on its core process of exchange and coalition formation. Within organizations, you will frequently confront coalitions of interests, and you will come to realize that collective action and organizational reforms are impossible if you do not build and manage a coalition to get things done. Therefore, we turn now to Coalition theory. To relate this theory, throughout this chapter we will draw heavily on the writings by James G March (1962, 1994: chapter 4) and Kevin Hula (1999) concerning coalition formation.

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Course Introduction

Organizational Analysis: Making Sense of the Business’s Uncertainty This course helps managers create better decisions by promoting sound decision-making in every aspect of an organization. It offers an introduction to the key elements of good organizational decision-making, using them as a lens to analyze the state of the organization and the performance of employees in relation to their peers. Learners will begin to understand the interrelationships among individuals in organizations, and how to manage employees in order to create a profitable, healthy, and sustainable organization. They will also understand the role of factors such as incentives, organization structure, risk preferences, organizational culture, and institutions in creating an organization’s quality. They will also learn how to select and implement appropriate action plans for an organization, and how to manage employees in order to create a competitive and productive environment. To top it all off, learners will learn how to translate their understanding of organizational behavior into better business decisions, by helping them understand the data and make better decisions on their own data-driven analysis. In this course - the first in a series to come - we will continue our series on Organizational Decisions using an integrative approach, planning and model-building, and we will focus on the decision-making process as a whole. We will cover: - Managing factors that influence the decisions made by employees; - Assessing the quality of the decisions made by employees; - Building model-based models of an organization;

Course Tag

Management Organizational Theory Organizational Analysis Organizational Culture

Related Wiki Topic

Article Example
Organizational analysis This study demonstrates a complex organizational analysis. The multiple aspects of the misalignment hampered information flows. In addition, inter-actor misunderstanding increased the inefficiencies of the program. This analysis could help the functioning of the program in the future.
Organizational analysis Organizational network analysis (ONA) is a method for studying communication within a formal organization to make invisible patterns of information flow and collaboration in strategically important groups visible. The method is applied by first mapping the relationships among people, tasks, groups, knowledge and resources of organizational systems. Then, analyzing the collected data with a social network analysis software in order to find organic clusters, opinion leaders, peripheral and bridging actors, indirect relations that are otherwise invisible.
Organizational analysis Evaluating or crafting an organizational strategy requires analysis of the relationship between mission, value and resources. Strategy allows managers to focus on an organization's long-term plan and ensure that mission objectives are met. Organizational strategy explores the relationship between unit and the environment. It involves action—matching skills and resources with opportunities and threats. According to Michael Porter, a professor from Harvard Business School and leading expert in organizational strategy, the basics of a competitive model have Five Forces:
Organizational analysis Organizational analysis is the process of reviewing the development, work environment, personnel, and operation of a business or another type of association. This review is often performed in response to crisis, but may also be carried out as part of a demonstration project, in the process of taking a program to scale, or in the course of regular operations. Conducting a periodic detailed organizational analysis can be a useful way for management to identify problems or inefficiencies that have arisen in the organization but have yet to be addressed, and develop strategies for resolving them.
Organizational analysis Organizational analysis focuses on the structure and design of the organization and how the organization's systems, capacity and functionality influence outputs. Additional internal and external factors are also accounted for in assessing how to improve efficiency. Undertaking an organizational analysis is helpful in assessing an organization's current well-being and capacity, and deciding on a course of action to improve the organization's long-term sustainability. A restructuring of an Organization may become necessary when either external or internal forces have created a problem or opportunity for improvement in efficiency and effectiveness.
Organizational analysis When performing an organizational analysis, many details emerge about the functions and capacity of the organization. All of these details can make pinpointing what is efficient and inefficient difficult. Using theoretical organizational models can help sort out the information, and make it easier to draw connections. After working through these theoretical models, the organizations present situation is more adequately addressed, and the trajectory of the organization can be more fully determined.
Organizational theory Organizational theory consists of approaches to organizational analysis. Theories of organizations include rational system perspective, division of labor, modernization theory, bureaucratic theory, and contingency theory.
Organizational analysis Organizational analysis can analyze a single organization and its internal functioning as well as a coalition of actors in collaboration for a certain goal. Such collaboration can be analyzed for inter-actor cooperation, information sharing and capacity. A good example is "Organizational analysis of maternal mortality reduction program in Madagascar" by Harimanana, Barennes and Reinharz. This study used the Gamson’s Coalition Theory and Hining & Greenwood’s archetypes to assess the misalignment of the process by which several agencies including the Madagascar health Ministry provide prenatal services and information to women in Madagascar. Their results show several problems. Incongruity among actors disperses the services and therefore makes it difficult for women to access support. Cultural inconsistencies and failure to recognize social context, diminishes the cooperation and effectiveness of the actors. Also, the Madagascar health ministry needs basic materials and funding to provide adequate services to women. Additionally, Cumbersome directives created inefficiencies. The Analysis of the information indicated that the Madagascar Ministry of Health is a poor leader of this effort, the programs did not translate well on the local level and the different actors did not cooperate well. The study also identified capacity limits in health care but due to the misalignment and uncooperative actors, the NGO’s did not properly address the lack of capacity.
Organizational analysis In the 1990s, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) was having problems with sustainability. There was a steep decline in ridership coupled with an increase in riders who avoided paying the fare. There was an increase in crime in the subways, as well as more homeless and panhandlers congregating in the stations. When Alan Kiepper became the head of the NYCTA, he decided to restructure the organization, and place more of a focus on stations. Kiepper believed that New Yorkers would regain trust in the Transit Authority if they saw crime decline and repercussions for fare avoidance. Therefore, Kiepper used the organizational structure model to improve the organization's efficiency. Stations were given station managers who were responsible for overseeing all problems within the station. The previous division of labor was broken down, and employees began to work across departments in order to improve the stations. This is an example of focusing on an organization's structure while performing an organizational analysis.
Organizational analysis First, the decision makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is not attainable a different objective must be selected and the process repeated. Users of SWOT analysis need to ask and answer questions that generate meaningful information for each category (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to make the analysis useful and find their competitive advantage.
Organizational analysis When organizations (usually in the public sector) do not have the internal capacity to complete their mission contracting-out occurs. An analysis of the capacities, the contract or agreement, and the relationship between collaborating stakeholders is conducted. Analysis of contracting-out and/or collaborations can ensure goals are met successfully prior to the beginning of a partnership, and correct inefficiencies throughout the time frame of the collaboration.
Organizational analysis Behavior, cognitive, and other personal factors as well as environmental events, operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bidirectionally. Personal goals of the managers and staff are seen as assisting in the effort toward organizational objective attainment. Decision making processes are focused on and specialization is deemed as important to the flow of information.
Organizational analysis The sociotechnical model, also known as Sociotechnical Systems (STS), is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society's complex infrastructures and human behavior. This model identifies the environment as a key factor that interacts with the organization.
Organizational analysis Bolman and Deal lay out these frames in their book Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership the authors also provide many examples of how best to apply their "four frames analysis".
Organizational analysis In the early 2000s, the Washington D.C. public schools (DCPS) faced an organizational crisis. D.C. mayor Adrian Fenty sought advice to determine what was the best way to effectively improve the Washington D.C. public schools. Fenty employed Michelle Rhee as the DCPS superintendent. Rhee initiated her job by analyzing all the factors that affected the DCPS. After evaluating all the factors Rhee decided to restructure the DCPS. Rhee set defined metrics in order to hold teachers accountable and measure whether they were reaching goals. Rhee wanted to eliminate tenure for teachers in order to increase teacher accountability. Rhee wanted to increase the DCPS efficiency, and believed that restructuring the teachers would achieve this.The process and results were controversial but illustrate an organizational approach to overcoming a policy crisis.
Organizational analysis A SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project or in a business venture. A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a product, place, industry or person. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective.The degree to which the internal environment of the entity matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit.
Organizational analysis Strategy can vary between public and private sectors. In the private sector the mission is to make money for stockholders, however in the public sector its mission is full-filling a social purpose or need. Measuring success is much harder in the public sector as it’s based on when a social need or issue has been full-filled. There is often no direct link between meeting mission and being sustainable. Sometimes a social value does not align with financial performance or organizational survival.
Organizational analysis The analysis should examine collaboration in three categories: capacity, the agreement, and the relationship. When analyzing the capacities of the collaborating organizations, examine the contractor’s capacity to deliver and meet contract service requirements. Explore the history of work and past successes as well as the financial standing of the contractor. The organization that is contracting out should have the ability (now and in the future) for monitoring, knowing when the contractor has fulfilled the contract, and for capacity building.
Organizational analysis An analysis of the agreement, or contract, should look for several indicators of future success. The contract should be compatible with the mission statements of the collaborating organizations. Adequate funding for completion of the contract is necessary. Outcome definitions and measures must be clear. A realistic time line should be present with a plan in place for handling potential set-backs. An agreed upon system for feedback throughout the collaboration should be built into the agreement.
Organizational analysis Attempts have also been made to put elements of the above models into a kind of "meta-model". Based on a theorized blindness of a single perspective, Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal have designed a model that splits analysis into four distinct paradigms. These 'frames' are to be used as a pluralistic model, and therefore allow analysts to change thinking by re-framing understanding and points of reference.