實驗經濟學 (Experimental Economics: Behavioral Game Theory)

Start Date: 07/05/2020

Course Type: Common Course

Course Link: https://www.coursera.org/learn/shiyan-jingji-xue

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About Course

人是否會如同理論經濟學的預測進行決策?這門課將透過每週的課程影片以及課後作業帶你了解實驗經濟學的基本概念。每週將會有習題練習以及指定閱讀的期刊論文。你將會參與一些線上的實驗、報告論文並且互評其他同學的報告。 ❖ 課程介紹(About the course) 這是一門進階的經濟學課程,課程目標為介紹實驗經濟學的基本概念,並且讓學生們能開始在這個領域從事自己的相關研究。 詳細課程目標如下: 1. 實驗經濟學的介紹: 在上完這堂課之後,學生應能列舉經濟學各個領域的數個知名實驗,並且解釋實驗結果如何驗證或否證經濟理論及其他實地資料。 2. 評論近期相關領域研究:上完這堂課之後,學生應能閱讀並評論實驗經濟學相關的期刊論文。在課堂中,學生將會閱讀指定的期刊論文,並且(在影片中)親自上台報告一篇論文。 ❖ 授課形式(Course format) 1. 本堂課將以影片的形式為主,搭配課後作業的形式來進行。 每個同學將閱讀一篇實驗經濟學論文,並錄影成兩段各 10 分鐘的介紹影片並後上傳至 Coursera(或上傳到 Youku,再複製連結到作業上傳區)。第一段期中報告影片請同學介紹該論文所描述的實驗設計,第二段,也就是期末報告影片則介紹實驗結果。此外每位同學至少需觀看其他兩位同學的呈現內容,並給予評論。 2. 這堂課將簡單地運用以下賽局(博弈)概念: 奈許均衡 / 纳什均衡(Nash Equilibrium) 混合策略均衡(Mixed Strategy Equilibrium) 子賽局完美均衡 / 子博弈精練纳什均衡(SPNE) 共識 / 共同知識(Common Knowledge) 信念(Belief)

Course Syllabus

在解賽局均衡時,「優勢 ( dominance ) 」是一個非常重要的觀念,即:一個策略如果「在任何情況下都比另一策略差」,就不應該用,因為它無論如何都不會極大化你的報酬。然而你自己會不會遵守極大化、使用優勢策略,跟「你相信別人會不會遵守極大化、使用優勢策略」不太一樣,因為後者牽涉到你對別人行為的「信念」。如果人們對別人理性的程度沒有足夠信心,他們實際在做決策時就可能不會按照優勢可解賽局的預測來做。在這個禮拜的課程中,我們將會討論人們在輪流出招的優勢可解賽局中的行為。我們首先會討論Beard and Beil的實驗及其相關研究,接下來我們會看看人們在蜈蚣賽局中的行為是否與理論相符,最後,我們會討論機制設計與人們在「髒臉賽局」中的行為。

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Behavioral game theory Behavioral game theory analyzes interactive strategic decisions and behavior using the methods of game theory, experimental economics, and experimental psychology. Experiments include testing deviations from typical simplifications of economic theory such as the independence axiom and neglect of altruism, fairness, and framing effects. As a research program, the subject is a development of the last three decades. Traditional game theory focuses on mathematical equilibriums, utility maximizing, and rational choice; in contrast, behavioral game theory focuses on choices made by participants in studies and is game theory applied to experiments. Choices studied in behavioral game theory are not always rational and do not always represent the utility maximizing choice.
Behavioral economics Behavioral game theory, Invented by Colin Camerer, analyzes interactive strategic decisions and behavior using the methods of game theory, experimental economics, and experimental psychology. Experiments include testing deviations from typical simplifications of economic theory such as the independence axiom and neglect of altruism, fairness, and framing effects. On the positive side, the method has been applied to interactive learning and social preferences. As a research program, the subject is a development of the last three decades.
Behavioral game theory Behavioral game theory is a primarily positive theory rather than a normative theory. A positive theory is objective and based on facts. Positive theories must be testable and can be proven true or false. A normative theory is subjective and based on opinions. Because of this, normative theories cannot be proven true or false. Behavioral game theory attempts to explain decision making using experimental data. The theory allows for rational and irrational decisions because both are examined using real-life experiments. Specifically, behavioral game theory attempts to explain factors that influence real world decisions. These factors are not explored in the area of traditional game theory, but can be postulated and observed using empirical data. Findings from behavioral game theory will tend to have higher external validity and can be better applied to real world decision-making behavior.
Behavioral economics A notable concern is that despite a great deal of rhetoric, there is no real consistent behavioral theory yet. Behavioral economics scholars also have no unified theory. Until that happens, it is a collection of loosely related or unrelated observations. What is missing is a foundational behavioral theory that can be tested in many domains as a competitor to neoclassical theory.
Behavioral economics Behavioral economics is primarily concerned with the bounds of rationality of economic agents. Behavioral models typically integrate insights from psychology, neuroscience and microeconomic theory; in so doing, these behavioral models cover a range of concepts, methods, and fields.
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics The Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering behavioral and experimental economics. It was established in 1972 as the Journal of Behavioral Economics, and was renamed the Journal of Socio-Economics in 1991. It obtained its current name in 2014. The editor-in-chief is Ofer Azar (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev). According to the "Journal Citation Reports", the journal has a 2015 impact factor of 0.340.
Behavioral economics Rabin dismisses these criticisms, claiming that consistent results are typically obtained in multiple situations and geographies and can produce good theoretical insight. Behavioral economists have also responded to these criticisms by focusing on field studies rather than lab experiments. Some economists see a fundamental schism between experimental economics and behavioral economics, but prominent behavioral and experimental economists tend to share techniques and approaches in answering common questions. For example, behavioral economists are investigating neuroeconomics, which is entirely experimental and cannot yet be verified in the field.
Game theory Game theory is a major method used in mathematical economics and business for modeling competing behaviors of interacting agents. Applications include a wide array of economic phenomena and approaches, such as auctions, bargaining, mergers & acquisitions pricing, fair division, duopolies, oligopolies, social network formation, agent-based computational economics, general equilibrium, mechanism design, and voting systems; and across such broad areas as experimental economics, behavioral economics, information economics, industrial organization, and political economy.
Behavioral economics Behavioral economics, along with the related sub-field behavioral finance, studies the effects of psychological, social, cognitive, and emotional factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and the consequences for market prices, returns, and resource allocation, although not always that narrowly, but also more generally, of the impact of different kinds of behavior, in different environments of varying experimental values.
Game theory Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers." Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science and biology. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.
Cognitive Hierarchy Theory Cognitive Hierarchy Theory (CHT) is a behavioral model originating in behavioral economics and game theory that attempts to describe human thought processes in strategic games. CHT aims to improve upon the accuracy of predictions made by standard analytic methods (including backwards induction and iterated elimination of dominated strategies), which can deviate considerably from actual experimental outcomes.
Experimental finance Experimental finance is a branch of experimental economics and its most common use lies in the field of behavioral finance.
Shude Experimental Middle School Shude Experimental Middle School (Simplified Chinese: 树德实验中学, Traditional Chinese: 樹德)is a middle school in Chengdu, China
Evolutionary game theory Using experimental economics methods, scientists have used RPS game to test human social evolutionary dynamical behaviors in laboratory. The social cyclic behaviors, predicted by evolutionary game theory, have been observed in various laboratory experiments.
Behavioral economics Traditional economists are also skeptical of the experimental and survey-based techniques which behavioral economics uses extensively. Economists typically stress revealed preferences over stated preferences (from surveys) in the determination of economic value. Experiments and surveys are at risk of systemic biases, strategic behavior and lack of incentive compatibility.
Behavioral economics The study of behavioral economics includes how market decisions are made and the mechanisms that drive public choice. The use of the term "behavioral economics" in U.S. scholarly papers has increased in the past few years, as shown by a recent study.
Behavioral economics Psychological traits such as overconfidence, projection bias, and the effects of limited attention are now part of the theory. Other developments include a conference at the University of Chicago, a special behavioral economics edition of the "Quarterly Journal of Economics" ("In Memory of Amos Tversky"), and Kahneman's 2002 Nobel Prize for having "integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty".
Behavioral economics Other proponents of behavioral economics note that neoclassical models often fail to predict outcomes in real world contexts. Behavioral insights can influence neoclassical models. Behavioral economists note that these revised models not only reach the same correct predictions as the traditional models, but also correctly predict some outcomes where the traditional models failed.
Experimental economics Experimental economics is the application of experimental methods to study economic questions. Data collected in experiments are used to estimate effect size, test the validity of economic theories, and illuminate market mechanisms. Economic experiments usually use cash to motivate subjects, in order to mimic real-world incentives. Experiments are used to help understand how and why markets and other exchange systems function as they do. Experimental economics have also expanded to understand institutions and the law (experimental law and economics).
Behavioral economics Behavioral finance highlights inefficiencies, such as under- or over-reactions to information, as causes of market trends and, in extreme cases, of bubbles and crashes. Such reactions have been attributed to limited investor attention, overconfidence, overoptimism, mimicry (herding instinct) and noise trading. Technical analysts consider behavioral finance to be behavioral economics' "academic cousin" and the theoretical basis for technical analysis.